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THE BIG BANG THEORY
By Jack Cameron

Why Aggravated Assaults Against China’s Front-line Hospital Staff Are Louder Than Bombs

Here we go round the prickly pear
All was quiet on our western front. And eastern. In fact every front was conspicuously quieter than it should have been that evening, given the season in question. The air did not smell of sulfur and carbon and chlorine, or vibrate gratuitously with the report of recreational ordnance. Fireballs of blue and yellow and green did not rain down on balconies, or ricochet off buildings, or bounce upon the roofs and bonnets of cars. The ground was not sprinkled with the red, singed paper tesserae that decorate the sidewalks on Chinese New Year. The Year of the Horse arrived with a sprightly cantor, not thundering gallop; and the collective din of the annual snap, crackle, and pop was less of a bang than a whimper.

As early as the first week of January, it was clear that festivities would be much gentler on the ears than they have been for the past decade. First, there was the conspicuous absence of the firework vendors who each January appeared out of nowhere and materialized at certain intersections and stretches of sidewalk. Then local news networks had begun asking citizens if they planned to celebrate the New Year with fireworks. Cherry-picked for broadcast or not, most citizens whose soundbites made the five-o’-clock news said “no,” citing both environmental concerns (air quality, noise pollution, litter and waste disposal) and worries about accidental injury or damage. Happily, “golden-hour,” reportage of the public spirit showed harmonious accord between the Old Hundred Names and the latest policies and advisories from relevant ministries and public security agencies. And sure enough, there were few bombs bursting in air, and less of the rockets’ red glare.

Smaug the Dragon
China’s cities became the focus of international interest (again) last autumn when images of urban skies and reports of frighteningly poor air-quality appeared in virtually all news media outlets. The promulgation and enforcement of firework bans fit nicely with the trending narrative, and the success of the policy initiative says a great deal about how the social inertia of cultural folkways can in fact be steered in new directions. The fact that the public will was not at extreme variance with the will of those in the North who craft Diktate minimized flashpoints¹.

Neighborhoods weren’t the only places that were quieter this holiday season. The emergency rooms of urban hospitals experienced a significant downtick in admissions, thanks mainly to fewer firework-related injuries.

Xinhua made the connection explicit in a news item of 15 February:

Sales of fireworks and the number of people injured due to fireworks setting off in Beijing have dropped significantly during this year’s Spring Festival holiday, which began on Feb. 10… A total of 165 people were injured due to fireworks setting off during the same period, down 22 percent from the previous year… No death or cases of eyeball extraction were reported...²

The China Real Time Report of The Wall Street Journal was among the English-language news-agencies to pick-up the item, though China Daily had reported earlier in February that firework-related injuries in the nation’s capital were, “down 33.89 percent from last year³.”

If slightly less-toxic air is a good outcome, fewer injuries are great ones. Among the people sure to be happiest about the data are the authors of the 2012 paper, “Prognostic factors and visual outcome for fireworks-related burns during spring festival in South China.” Conclusions include the recommendation that, “Laws should be passed to forbid the personal use of fireworks in China, and public education on the sale and use of fireworks should be increased⁴.” That very year, Xinhua reported:

Tongren Hospital has received 1,128 patients with fireworks-related injuries since Beijing removed its ban on fireworks during the festival in 2006. Nearly 30 percent of the patients are youngsters...During last year’s [2011] holiday week, the hospital treated 206 patients with firework-induced injuries, 178 of whom suffered eye injuries. The youngest was only two years old⁵.

But children were not the only beneficiaries of the new policies regarding the sale of fireworks and the enforcement of ordinances pursuant to their private use. Front-line hospital staff likely avoided injuries of their own, too.

Occupational Hazards
Aggravated assault against nurses, doctors, and hospital workers became talking-points outside China when major news outlets like The Atlantic gave column inches to the phenomenon.⁶ “Violence against healthcare staff is not new in China,” writes Yanzhong Huang. “It has been a topic of media concern since the early 1990s.”

National Public Radio, the broadcast brain-trust of American intellectuals, covered the same ground at the beginning of November 2013 (“In Violent Hospitals, China’s Doctors Can Become Patients”)⁷while Bloomberg was quick off the mark in responding to the March 2012 murder of a young internist at First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin University. In that commentary, Adam Minter undertook to explain why, “Violent Crimes in China’s Hospital Spread Happiness.”⁸ China Radio International (CRI) turned to the topic later that May 2012.

Scholarly concern for “hospital violence” in China (yiyuan baoli 医院暴力, or yi’nao 医闹in colloquial spoken Mandarin) is, as Yanzhong Huang points out, not new. ⁹ In 2006, authors sounded the alarm in the Hong Kong Medical Journal. ¹⁰

The historical development of both phenomena - criminal assault upon healthcare workers in China, and its position in the international news-cycle - are subjects worthy of further enquiry. What we have not seen so far, though, is interest inthe possible connection between the outcry from Chinese doctors in international English-language medical journals, and the decision to ban fireworks. And that just might be the real story.

Where there’s smoke, there’s fire…and probably mirrors, too
In 12 May 2012, The Lancet published, “Ending violence against doctors in China.” ¹¹ More than one year later, on 16 August 2013, The Wall Street Journal chimed-in, ¹² as did USA Today on October 24. ¹³ The May 2012 paper in The Lancet was cited in a 1 November 2013 commentary in the British Medical Journal (“Ending violence against doctors in China” ¹⁴ ), which was followed by a 23 November 2013 article again in The Lancet (“Appeals from doctors to end violence”). ¹⁵ The copy in both The Lancet and the BMJ was written by Mainland doctors working in Chinese metropolitan hospitals, and their sense of urgency is clear:

Within only 10 days in October, seven consecutive incidents of violence against medical personnel took place in Chinese hospitals, three doctors were killed and ten medical staff were injured. This recent wave of assaults on medical staff has led to widespread discussions on Chinese social media. Anger, fear, despair, and even hatred are common among doctors. Chinese doctors are under tremendous stress [ibid.].

Back to fireworks. The first mention of municipal bans on fireworks filtered into the media aquifer with Xinhua’s 12 December 2013 item, ¹⁶ which was run in the American edition of the China Daily (“Beijing to ban fireworks if new year turns foggy”) on 13 December 2013. ¹⁷ News that Wuhan would, in fact, prohibit the use of fireworks was reported by China Daily on 20 December 2013. ¹⁸

But the connection between fireworks and smog was not the only aspect of fireworks that was transparently of interest to the government.

On 22 November The Wall Street Journal reported that, “Fireworks Are Newest Target of China’s Austerity Drive.” ¹⁹ The article, based on a Central Discipline Inspection Commission report, ²⁰ suggested that, “the ban on gifts of fireworks, which can cost as much as 1,000 yuan ($164) a box, may be aimed at shutting down one more avenue for corruption rather than discouraging enjoyment of an ancient Chinese invention.”

“Shutting down one more avenue for corruption,” maybe. But these early government discussions about reducing civilian access to fireworks might have been part of a plan to make stealthy inroads on the phenomenon of hospital violence – under cover and against the backdrop of the domestic and international hue and cry about air pollution. ²¹

China’s Problem:
The West’s “Violence”

“The West,” if we may for a moment generalize and over-simplify, regularly criticizes China for (inter alia) the nation’s Yeti-sized carbon footprint. Rarely, though, are the long knives drawn for Chinese traditions and folkways. Fireworks add to the air pollution problem, but few China-hawks would go so far as to call upon the Chinese to discourage, “enjoyment of an ancient Chinese invention.” Allowing civilians to detonate fireworks en masse once or twice a year will make air quality acutely worse in the short-term, but banning the use of fireworks during the Chinese New Year will not do much to make air quality chronically better in the long-run.

What enforcement of the new policies did achieve, however, was less acute strain on accident and emergency units at hospitals during the holiday period. Because the fireworks bans reduced the number of burns and other fireworks-related injuries, there were fewer emergent-care outpatients clogging the arteries of a system that is under duress; and whenever emergent-care user-density is thinned-out, the likelihood of an aggravated assault resulting in the injury or death of front-line hospital staff drops too.

Beijing is thus in a position to announce this March - two years after the murder of the intern in Harbin - that indications for yiyuan baoli for the first two months of 2014 are positive. Simply by eliminating opportunities for predictable injuries, they reduced also opportunities for strife, conflict, and agitation in the ER. Given the outcry in the pages of The Lancet and the BMJ, such an encouraging statement from Xinhua is very likely, if not inevitable. After all, the phenomenon now has its own Wikipedia page (“Violence against doctors in China”). Not a good sign. ²²

Maybe there is in fact no connection whatsoever between this year’s firework restrictions and last winter’s concerns, from inside and outside China, about “hospital violence.” But despite the environmental impact of fireworks, and both the risks and foreseeable injuries and damage actually caused by fireworks, there’s still a lot to be said in favour of allowing the masses to celebrate Chinese New Year with them, and the government was very brave to try and clamp-down on such a beloved tradition. It is, after all, very eusocial and ethno-patriotic, enjoyed by rich and poor, urban and rural residents alike. It is a reaffirmation of the unity of Chinese culture – or at least, a public affirmation of belief in the ideal of such unity. Taking away from the people of China the freedom to enjoy an “ancient tradition” is risky business. That’s why the anti-pollution rationale is so weak: Why make the mob miserable, or risk head-on confrontations with civil disobedience, when everyone knows that a fireworks ban won’t make a dent in the air-quality problem? But arming doctors with pepper-spray is not a mark of a harmonious society, or of scientific development, or of expanding moderate-well-off-ness. ²³ And that is an issue that needs to be handled adroitly. And fast.

Fallout, Boys
And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Chinese rarely think about or talk about baoli (“violence”) or qinlve (侵略, aggression) as problems in their own right, as problems in and of themselves – not in the way Western Anglophones do. For Chinese language-users, to start doing so would require a formidable conceptual adjustment in respect to Chinese ideas of both, “violence,” and, “victimhood;” conceptualizations, which themselves are not easily facilitated by Mandarin. It is therefore a very bad sign that the community needed to and in fact did neologize (yi’nao) to vouchsafe and secure new references to a troubling if old phenomenon.

Over the past 25 years, American scholars (social and behavioral scientists mainly) have succeeded in redirecting discussion from the crimes of assault and aggravated assault, to a discussion of violence itself. The author who deserves much of the blame (though most would say: credit) for this is James Gilligan. In his 1981, Preventing Violence, Gilligan states:

I will use the terms disease, illness, and pathology to refer to any force or process within an organism or species that tends to bring death or disability to the organism, or extinction to the species. Violence in all the forms just mentioned is, by that definition, a manifestation, form, or symptom of pathology or illness, at least as much as cancer and heart disease are… [V]iolence is a manifestation of disease… ²⁴

Gilligan and others, in the course of a single generation, have foisted upon Anglophones an entirely new concept of what violence is – viz., that Violence is a phenomenon in its own right, one which, in order to be understood, must be abstracted from the concepts of crimes and/or torts – viz., trespasses against the person – and abstracted even from the concepts of right and wrong. Those who have followed Gilligan to the outer limits of his absurdity (and there are many) currently argue that Violence is indeed – and not just metaphorically or analogically - a kind of disease-entity, something that is best understood with epidemiological paradigms and models and should be addressed in earnest by public health experts. ²⁵

This reconceptualization of Violence is philosophically very problematic, and for China to buy into it is positively dangerous. China has heretofore lacked the victim-culture we find throughout the English-speaking world; and to reiterate, this is one of the reasons why there is in China so little conversation about either Violence Itself or Aggression Itself as “problems” endemic to human beings and our societies. In spoken-Mandarin, one rarely uses the adjectives baolide 暴力的(violent) or qinlvede 侵略的 (aggressive) to describe people or their actions. ²⁶ The guy who puffs-up his chest and gets in-your-face might be shenjingbing or you maobing (colloquially: crazy), or guofen, or erbaiwu (excessive, or out-of order); but neither the individual nor his actions are likely to be described in everyday spoken Chinese as baolide, mengliede (猛烈的), or qinlvede.

But when Chinese doctors write ²⁷ about the crime of aggravated assault (specifically as perpetrated against medical personnel) for international English-language publications, they or their translators have little choice but to describe the situation and to express their concerns in terms immediately cogent and friendly to the reigning Zeitgeist of contemporary English-language culture. Inevitably, they thus present themselves as a new class of victims, whose victimhood is to be understood according to the English-speaking world’s latest concepts of “violence.” But whereas the simple fact is that Chinese doctors as a class are increasingly becoming the targets of some individual Chinese malefactors, the English-language rhetoric of Violence tells the narrative differently: All Chinese doctors are potential victims of the Violence Itself which lurks in Chinese society, and which is now seeping its way into the hospitals. That’s a mischaracterization of the phenomenon, but it plays into the hands of Western observers who have a knack for connecting Violence Itself with (inter alia.) human rights issues.

And in any case, given the historical association between the concept of Violence Itself and both class-struggle and social unrest, ²⁸ China’s leaders have very good reason to want to nip in the bud both problems: assaults perpetrated against hospital staff, and the misbegotten meme of “violence” and all its muddle-headed conceptual accoutrement.

Look again at some of the English-language headlines:

Violence against healthcare staff is not new in China (The Atlantic)
In Violent Hospitals, China’s Doctors Can Become Patients (NPR)
Violent Crimes in China’s Hospital Spread Happiness (Bloomberg)
China trying to stop patients from killing doctors (USA Today)


The least contentious of these is the USA Today headline, which is accurate if lurid, while Bloomberg deserves credit for not shying away from the fact that these assaults are crimes.

This is important. The new English-language concept of Violence aims to be non-judgmental and non-prejudicial as to whether the author of the act was right or wrong in using force or the threat of force. Violence Itself – tout court – is wrong, though this is now meant to be implied by and is taken as intrinsic to the very concept of violence. This linguistic sleight of hand is achieved only by equating Violence Itself with wrongfulness, and shunting to one side the actual human perpetrator and judgment of him or his actions. And the West has become excellent at not judging – or, at not-judging.

This, of course, is a cul-de-sac of folly. If a patient assaults a doctor, we can describe it as an act of violence. If the patient is then tackled by security personnel and forcibly manacled, that too may be described as an act of violence. From either a moral or legal point of view, however, the two “acts of violence” are not the same; but the new paradigm shift downplays or eliminates the importance of that distinction. Once upon a time (fifty years ago, roughly), the problem was the wrongful, harm-causing behavior, some of which happens to be both criminal (and/or delictual) and “violent;” currently, the “problem” is violence as such – disembodied, rarefied, and almost spectral or paranormal.

Nonsense, of course. By spinning the sow’s ear of a violent act (like an assault) into the silk purse of a pathogen or disease entity, Violence Itself can be addressed without being critical of the people who actually do harmful things wrongfully, or without burdening such people with responsibility for their actions which, of course, misses entirely the point, and the real problem: people who intentionally or recklessly cause wrongful harm have done something wrong. There’s no question of whether or not they should be judged; we’ve judged them already. That’s why a “violent” assault with a deadly weapon is a crime, but a constable’s “violent” disarming of an armed malefactor is not. ²⁹ (Like, ni-hao?)

Hence the subtle but unfortunate implications of The Atlantic headline, which removes reference both to the human agents who do the assaulting and to the fact that these assaults against doctors are crimes. NPR, meanwhile, shifts the entire weight of violence to the clinic – violent hospitals. The fact of human malefaction disappears altogether, and we’re invited to contemplate doctors as being victimized by violent hospitals, another manifestation – another incarnation! – of the specter of Violence Itself.

This is a path both Chinese citizens and their leaders do not want to travel. Western scholarship’s current conception of Violence is intellectually bankrupt, the whole field of “violence studies” a dud, and rhetoric of “violence” part of the very problem scholarship is supposed to be solving.

Or perhaps the rhetoric of violence isn’t a dud. It’s more like an A-bomb, where the fallout from which is deadlier than the blast.

¹For those who make a living scrutinizing China for signs of “development” (read: Western liberal bandwagonism), the correct induction is: not every engine of social change need be combustible. The eardrum-friendly arrival of 2014 was, if you will, the gunpowder plot that worked without becoming incendiary.

²
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/02/15/fireworks-sales-eyeball-extractions-plummet-in-beijing/. See also: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/chinese-new-year-2014-china-urges-firework-ban-it-grapples-smog-crisis-1434407http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/29/us-china-pollution-idUSBREA0S0CE20140129http://thediplomat.com/2014/01/shrouded-in-smog-chinese-officials-consider-a-firework-ban/

³Supra.

⁴J Burn Care Res. 2012 May-Jun;33(3):e108-13. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182335998.

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-01/16/c_131363450.htm

http://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/12/chinas-doctors-are-under-attack/282002/

http://www.wbur.org/npr/242344329/in-violent-hospitals-chinas-doctors-can-become-patients?ft=3&f=242344329

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-29/violent-crimes-in-china-s-hospitals-spread-happiness.html

⁹Nor are they confined to China – Google-search “hospital violence” and you’ll find a great deal of literature from the US and UK addressing the same issues.

¹⁰
http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/45494

¹¹
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60729-6/fulltext

¹²
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/08/16/violence-against-doctors-on-the-rise-in-china/

¹³
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/10/24/china-hospital-attacks/3178633/

¹⁴
http://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e5730/rr/669822

¹⁵
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62401-0/fulltext

¹⁶
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-12/12/c_132963433.htm

¹⁷
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-12/13/content_17171332.htm


¹⁸
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-12/30/content_17206075.htm

¹⁹
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/11/22/fireworks-are-newest-target-of-chinas-austerity-drive/

²⁰
http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2013-11/21/content_2532026.htm

²¹The smog of 2013 had already been making headlines. The Huffing Post drew their reticules upon the issue on 21 October 2013, which is when Reuters covered the topic. The Washington Post was right behind them. And while some of the worst days (pollution wise) of 2013 were indeed in December – topical chatter on Weixin and Weibo peaked that month - the off-the-charts PM figures for December 2013 might not be chief reason for the new fireworks ordinances.

²²
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence_against_doctors_in_China. Put in the context of international media reporting on assaults against Chinese hospital staff, the creation date is telling: 2 November 2013. Note that we are to read “Violence against doctors” differently that we would read “Mothers against drunk driving”, or “Physicists against nuclear war”.

²³
http://www.ibtimes.com/hospital-china-arms-doctors-pepper-spray-protect-against-angry-patients-1542144

²⁴Gilligan J (1981) Preventing Violence, p.16, p.17 (emphasis added).

²⁵See for example see http://live.reuters.com/Event/Gun_Violence_A_Public_Health_Crisis, and http://harvardmagazine.com/2013/01/gun-violence-and-public-health. See also http://stevenpinker.com/pages/frequently-asked-questions-about-better-angels-our-nature-why-violence-has-declined.

²⁶Jiating baoli (家庭暴力) “domestic violence”, is another import, one which has been trending for a while now. But so far, native-speaking Chinese language-users do not fear or worry about baoli, “Violence”, in the generalized way many English-speakers do. An interesting point of comparison is, or may be, with the differences of semantic import between the English-language concept of allergy, and the Chinese concept of chaoguominganbing (超过敏感病, literally, “excessive-sensitivity disease/sickness”). The scope of guomin (“excessive sensitivity”) includes but is broader than the scope of “allergic”. This is why Chinese who are “excessively sensitive” to alcohol describe their condition (or: their own idiosyncratic relationship to alcohol) with the same word they would use to describe a nut or penicillin allergy. Wo dui X you mingan (我对 X 有敏感) – “ I in respect of X (alcohol, peanuts, etc.) am excessively-sensitive”. This is conceptually different from (and has different implications than) the English statement “I am allergic to X”. It is interesting also that, where an English speaker might distinguish between assertive and aggressive, and claim that Jones was not merely assertive but “was aggressive” or “acted aggressively”, the Chinese would be much more likely to say that Wang is guofen, or that Wang’s action was tai guofen – excessive or too excessive. Both mingan and guofen imply standards, limits, boundaries, thresholds, etc., to which something (a sensitivity, an action) is compared. In the new paradigm, neither ‘aggressive’ nor ‘violent’ allow for that. Both “aggression” and “violence” – and bear in mind that these are noun-forms of the useful adjectives aggressive and violent – are (following Gilligan et al.) diseases, or symptoms of diseases. As such, “aggression” and “violence” are deviations from health, not from standards of right and wrong. This tactical semantic wizardry requires a very particular and controversial (or at least: debatable) definition of health, and is an offense to the sensibility of everyday English, which allows that something may be intelligible and correctly described as both ‘violent’ (boxing, rugby, fencing) and not-wrongful, violent and not wrong, violent and good.

²⁷暴力 and 侵略 and their adjectival cognates are less uncommon as written words.

²⁸The first academic paper in 20th century American scholarship to even have the word ‘violence’ in the title is Adams TS (1906) “Violence in Labor Disputes”, Publications of the American Economic Association, 3rd Series, Vol. 7, No. 1 (February 1906), pp. 176-206. It also uses the word “violence” in the first paragraph more than any other scholarly paper in English had up to that time. This was then followed by a number of works which demonstrate clearly how a new concept of violence was taking place in the context of the rise of organized (unionized) labor – see John Haynes Holmes (1920) Is Violence the Way Out of Industrial Disputes?. Throughout the 20s, 30s, and 40s, English-language scholarship addressed a number of topics which today seem familiar – juvenile delinquency, the effects of comic books, television, and film upon children, etc. Few of these works frame their concerns in terms of “violence”, or even mention violence, a word which is in fact absent most of the inter-war and post-war literature dealing specifically with international aggression, strife, peace, war reparations, etc. “Violence Itself” does not in fact become an object of broad scholarly concern until the late 1960s, beginning in earnest with the papers in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol.66, No.19, these being from the Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical Association (2 October 1969). The contributions to this issue of the Journal of Philosophy were an attempt to respond philosophically to the militant disturbances and the student protests at Columbia University and elsewhere, and the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, once again demonstrating that the idea of Violence Itself was born in the crucible of civil unrest. In the prior century, the word “violence” was used most often in connection with the weather and natural phenomena, Biblical literature, the emancipation of slaves in the ante-bellum South, attacks upon African Americans in the post-bellum South, the conflict between labour and capital, and crime. The word rarely occurs in descriptions of either the War of 1812, the American Civil War (or the works of Stephen Crane, by the way), or the macabre works of or review of the macabre works of Poe. Crime reporting in The New York Times uses the word “violence” with increasing in the years after the Civil War – noting, obiter, that the first US daytime armed bank robbery took place in 1866, which was the same year the ASPCA was founded. Hannah Arendt’s On Violence appeared on shelves in 1970, but her work is best regarded as a contemporary continuation of a Continental tradition going back at least as far as Hegel (Philosophy of Right, 1820) and Marx, in which “violence” is understood in the context of political activity (and not: political activity addressed in the context of violence, as it is today). In Arendt, the word “violence” refers mainly to force or to power, but not specifically to the character of wrongful-harms or wrongful harm-causing – that is, to those things typically designated crimes. It is not to be wondered at that On Violence followed hard on the heels of proletariat revolutions around the world, the dying gasps of colonialism, and the worst of domestic riots associated with the Vietnam War protests and the Civil Rights Movement. So when, exactly, did “violence” start to become contemplated in the West as a phenomenon in its own right, as a “disease”, as a health issue? The Seville Statement on Violence was issued in 1986, but even here the enemy was not war, intraspecific atrocity, or even Violence Itself, but what its signatories thought was the strong determinism of EO Wilson and sociobiology, which seemed to them to doom Mankind to war in perpetuity. The date we are looking for is 2002. That is when the WHO – despite over half a century of grand and grandiose declarations – finally issued a report on “the problem of violence.” The project’s house-of-cards foundation was laid by those scholars took up residence on Gilligan’s island – vide World Report on Violence and Health – here: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/pr73/en/. We are left, at last, with an innocent and simple question, one which scholars are either unwilling or unable to answer: If “the problem of violence” had been in plain sight since the dawn of human existence, and has forever been one of humankind’s most intractable problems, why then did it take so long for anyone to write about it as a problem – that is, as a problem in and of itself? And with a world lately bathed in the blood of the Holocaust, why did it take the scholars and the researchers of the last half of the 20th century another two decades to discover Violence? Was the Armenian genocide, the massacre in Nanjing, the continued lynching of African Americans in the post-bellum South, the two world wars, Nazi atrocities, the Korean War, and Vietnam not quite violent enough? And if violence is in fact (and not just by stipulation or hypothesis) a disease, disease entity, or symptom of disease, why did the UN’s global hygiene secretariat wait 40 years to issue a report on the subject?

²⁹See R v Billinghurst [1978] Crim LR 553, Newport Crown Court: Judge John Rutter: June 12 and 13, 1978. The case concerned the reasonable limits of consent to the risk or prospect of experiencing intentional physical harm-causing in sport, insofar as such harm was or should have been reasonably foreseeable to a consenting athlete and participant. The ruling makes clear that while rugby is a contact sport, and that sometimes in rugby players do in fact throw or trade punches, consent to participation in a rugby match is not or should not be taken as consent to be either punched or assaulted in a manner which is or should be considered properly outside the scope of fair and reasonable play. The court so held, citing public policy as a principal or determining factor. The language throughout, though sometimes less than unequivocal, allows and in fact insists upon the intelligibility of making and sustaining a distinction between non-wrongful “violence”(rugby is a contact sport, it is rough, and may be described as “violent”) and wrongful-violence (the nature or kind of aggression which would lead or cause a player to punch another player is unacceptable, and to punch another player would be to manifest to an inappropriate degree aggression, and so or thereby commit a wrongfully-violent act. There’s a great deal of literature on the subject which tackles the rational of violenti non injuria fit in the context of sport and rough play (Yes. I said “tackle.”). The relevance of this body of literature to “the problem of Violence” seems not to be widely acknowledged or appreciated.

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What To Do For Chinese Lantern Festival

Lantern Festival marks the last day of the Spring Festival and officially ends the Chinese New Year celebrations. This fun festival is mostly celebrated at nighttime to see the colorful lanterns flying high in the dark sky. In addition to seeing the lanterns flying, during this festival, families gather to attend four other major activities on this special day.

The belief during this festival is by lighting a lantern, you make a wish. So Chinese families light their lanterns and pray for health, fortune, wealth or make even more precise wishes. It is said that if you want your wish to come true, you must walk under a hanging lantern and pray for what you want.

So, at the end of the day, people light their lanterns and watch them fly away in the dark sky, accompanied by fireworks. Releasing the lanterns, which are red for good luck, symbolizes people letting go of their past selves and embracing new identities for the coming year.

Another popular activity during the Lantern Festival is to guess lanterns riddles.

Lantern riddles are called 灯迷 dēng mí in Chinese, where 灯 dēng is a lantern, lamp, or light, and 迷 mí refers to a puzzle, riddle, enigma, or conundrum.

The lanterns’ owners write riddles on small strips of paper they attach to the lantern they have hanging outside their home, so visitors can try to guess and solve the riddle.

If the visitors come up with an answer to the riddle (they are usually pretty tough to guess!), they can take off the paper and give it to the lantern owner. If the visitor guessed the right answer, then they win a little gift, given by the owner.

And this is how you change your casual stroll in the streets into a delightful moment by solving riddles. Fun, right?

Lastly, a big Lantern Festival tradition is to eat 元宵 (yuán xiāo) and these sticky balls are so yummy you’d be sorry to miss out on this excuse to eat sweet stuff.

元宵 (yuán xiāo) are sticky rice dumplings that can be stuffed with white sugar, brown sugar, sesame seeds, peanuts, walnuts, rose petals, bean paste, and jujube paste, or any combination of two or three ingredients. For Chinese people, the roundness of the dumplings symbolizes the togetherness as it is a great time for family gatherings.

Here are the locations where you can watch the Lantern Festival:

Grand Canal Spring
“运河之春”灯会


Time: Feb. 19th
Location: Streets in Gongshu District 拱墅区各街道

Wushan
吴山灯会


Time: 5:30pm - 9:30pm, Jan.25th - Feb. 20th (5:30pm - 10:30pm on the 19th)
Location: Cheng Huang Ge, Wushan 吴山城隍阁景区
Tickets: 30RMB/adults, 15RMB/children

People's Square, Xiaoshan
萧山人民广场


Time:  1:30pm - 3pm on Feb. 18th - 20th. Variety performances including singing and dancing, magic, acrobatics, etc.
Location: People's Square, Xiaoshan 萧山人民广场

Xiang Lake
湘湖灯会


Time: Feb. 3rd - 19th
Location: Xiang Lake, Xiaoshan 萧山区湘湖景区

West Lake Culture Plaza
西湖文化广场


Time: Feb. 18th - 20th
Location: West Lake Culture Plaza 西湖文化广场

Qiantang Lantern Affair
钱塘灯会


Time: Feb. 19th - Mar. 4th
Location: Dengxin Lane, Tianshui Street 天水街道灯芯巷

Song Dynasty
宋城灯会


Time: Feb. 5th - 19th
Location: Song Dynasty Themed Park 宋城景区
Tickets: 290RMB

Post-Holiday Weight Loss Plan

If you gained a few pounds over the holidays, you’re not alone. The good news for seniors looking to get back on track is you can bring about weight loss by cutting 500 calories daily from your diet. That’s the equivalent of one bagel with cream cheese.

The bad news, according to a report in the New England Journal of Medicine, is most people don’t lose the one to five pounds they gained during the Christmas and Chinese New Year’s season. Aim to follow these suggestions on this list over the course of a week, and you'll be well on your way to reclaiming your waistline before you've even had a chance to pack up the holiday decorations.

Cut Sugar
The topic about sugar can go on and on, how bad is sugar? The World Health Organization recommends that adults consume no more than 6 teaspoons (about 22 grams) of sugar per day. This seems easy to control, but in fact, if you drink a bottle of any sweet drink, you will exceed the standard.

If you want to know more, we suggest you to watch this film That Sugar Film by Damon Gameau, here is a trial:
https://v.qq.com/x/cover/yxmn5h9ya3rl2e9.html
Damon Gameau becomes a human guinea-pig when he puts himself through a grueling 6 week diet consuming the equivalent of 40 teaspoons of sugar a day. That Sugar Film is one man's journey to discover the bitter truth about sugar. Damon Gameau embarks on a unique experiment to document the effects of a high sugar diet on a healthy body, consuming only foods that are commonly perceived as “healthy.”
Sugar is Sweet or white “poison”?

Drink Water
People often mistake thirst for hunger, so next time you feel like noshing, reach for water first. Drinking also helps you feel full. Some experts suggest sipping water (or iced tea) just before you sit down to a meal. Continue drinking as you eat to add volume and weight to your meal.

Try An At-home HIIT Workout
Try this 25-minute HIIT workout to torch 500 calories: 1 minute, 30 seconds of burpees; 1 minute, 30 seconds of squat jumps; 1 minute, 30 seconds of pendulums; 1 minute, 30 seconds of band jumps; and 1 minute, 30 seconds of bicep curls with bands. Repeat three times with a minute of rest in between. This sequence hits your whole body and the fast transitions keep your heart going. That way, even when the workout is over, you'll still be burning calories.

Opt For A Low-calorie Breakfast
Swap out your regular morning bagel, baozi, youtiao, fried dumplings to immediately slash 240 calories from your breakfast. And instead of flavoring it with spreading some ripe avocado on the whole wheat bread. You'll save yourself another 25 calories and benefit from the "good" monounsaturated fats in avocados, which can help reduce your risk of heart disease. Do this twice a week to cut 530 calories.

Don't Just Sit There
The average person burns 100 calories per hour sitting and 140 per hour standing. Make a point of being on your feet for at least two hours every day, and you could slash an extra 560 calories by the end of the week. Bonus: Taking frequent breaks can help prevent your risk of developing anxiety, heart disease, or certain cancers—all potential side effects of a sedentary lifestyle.

Go Easy on the Alcohol
Remember that alcohol is a source of calories. A 12-ounce beer has 150 calories; a 3.5-ounce glass of wine, 85. A margarita packs a bigger caloric punch. Even worse offenders are creamy cocktails, such as brandy alexanders and mudslides—equivalent to drinking a rich dessert. The bottom line: If you’re trying to lose weight, stick with water. Follow these simple tricks to cut back on alcohol.

Dress Your Salad with A Fork
Prefer your salad dressing on the side? Lightly dip your fork into the dressing before stabbing your greens instead of plunging an already-loaded fork into the condiment (which picks up more) or drizzling it on top. You'll get just enough to flavor each bite and will cut about 500 calories. Another tip: Always opt for balsamic instead of Caesar to save yourself another 70 calories per tablespoon.

Say Goodbye to Soda
There are plenty of reasons to give up your soda habit once and for all. Studies have linked consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to tooth decay, diabetes, and poor bone health. And diet soda doesn't fare much better—artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and sucralose trigger insulin, which could cause you to gain weight. Start by replacing your daily 12-ounce can with a glass of water for a week, and you'll cut 980 calories. This is probably one of the easiest and best swaps you can make.

Up Your Protein (A Little)
Research suggests that protein prolongs the feeling of fullness better than carbohydrates or fats do. Studies in Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, and England found that people who ate a high-protein breakfast or lunch were less hungry at their next meal. Protein also requires a few more calories to digest. Just don’t go overboard. Stick to low-fat protein sources like low-fat yogurt or cottage cheese, low-fat soy drinks or snacks, or thinly sliced turkey breast.

Go For A Run
Running may be one of the most efficient workouts when it comes to blasting fat. Lace up your sneakers and go for a 60-minute run at a 10-minute-per-mile pace to burn about 600 calories.

Hit the Stairs
Not a fan of long runs? Work off nearly the same amount of calories in half the time by running up and down the stairs in your home. Do this for 15 minutes, and you'll lose 270 calories. Repeat twice a week to torch over 500.

Grab A Jump Rope
We know, we know—it gives you flashbacks to elementary school gym class. But jumping rope is a serious calorie-burner that strengthens your quads, calves, core, and shoulders. Spend 20 minutes jumping rope and you'll burn 240 calories; do this twice in a week to torch nearly 500.

Snack Smart
You may think of it as a health food, but one serving of pita bread contains about 13% of your recommended daily sodium. For a healthier fix, pair hummus with crunchy red pepper slices. This fiber-filled veggie is a great source of vitamins A, C, and K, and will save you 135 calories. Do this four times a week to burn 540 calories in total.

Work Out For Just 10 More Minutes
Whether you're on the treadmill, walking around your neighborhood, or swimming laps, tell yourself to continue on for another ten minutes after you're ready to end your workout. Those extra minutes could help you shed an additional 100 calories. Repeat for five of your weekly workouts to burn 500.

Only 4 months to summer, good luck to you, and we hope you'll get to see a new you in the year of 2019!

Your Fortune in the Year of Pig

2019 is a Year of the Pig according to the Chinese zodiac, and it's an Earth Pig year. Years of the Pig include 1935, 1947, 1959, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2007, 2019, and 2031. In Chinese astrology, each year belongs to a Chinese zodiac animal according to the 12-year cycle.

“Pigs have a beautiful personality and are blessed with good fortune in life.”

Recent years of the Pig are: 1935, 1947, 1959, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2007, 2019
Pigs are diligent, compassionate, and generous. They have great concentration: once they set a goal, they will devote all their energy to achieving it. Though Pigs rarely seek help from others, they will not refuse to give others a hand. Pigs never suspect trickery, so they are easily fooled.

General speaking, Pigs are relatively calm when facing trouble. No matter how difficult the problems are Pigs encounter, they can handle things properly and carefully. They have a great sense of responsibility to finish what they are engaged in.

Pigs in the Year of the Pig (2019)
The year of one’s zodiac sign is their 本命年 (ben ming nian). It is traditionally the most unlucky year with trouble and danger lurking at every corner.

Career: Earth can absorb Water. Earth gives Water the pressure. Earth represents your career. Pig contains Water and Wood, without Earth. That implies you don't care too much about your career development at this time. You are focusing in exchanging and discussing new ideas with your partner. You enjoy the current working environment. Therefore, your career opportunity is okay. But you won't have too much career changes in the near future.
You will meet your business partners or competitors. If your current job is very busy, then your coworkers will help your heavy workloads or someone will guide you how to make your job easier. If your current job is too light and you don't have any job pressure at all, then you need to watch out your position. Someone might take over your job. If you own a business and many business opportunities make you busy, then you will find new business partners working on the opportunities together. If you are a business owner and your business is slowing down, then don't expand your business to new territory during this period.

Job Change: Earth represents you career. Pig contains Water and Wood, without Earth. Your career opportunity is not promising. You probably are not strongly thinking a new job at this moment. If you are looking for a job, you will see many peers looking for the same job. If someone is offering a new position and you don't have too much passion on it, then you can skip that opportunity.

Wealth: Water can extinguish and conquer Fire. Fire represents your money. Pig contains Water and Wood without Fire. That means you don't have significant moneymaking opportunity during this time. You need extra energy and time to earn extra income.
Fire is hard to survive in the water environment of two pigs. Both pigs will compete to own the money of Fire. That's a sign of robbery, overspending or money loss. You need to carefully invest your money. You can ask people born in year of Horse to help your money management.

Love: When a Pig meets another Pig, your social activities will increase. But Pig and Pig have only friendship, not love relationship. If you are female, the Earth represents your boyfriend or husband. If you are male, then Fire represents your girlfriend or wife. Pig contains Water and Wood, without Fire and Earth. Therefore, you probably need more time to find your love relationship.
Pig is connected to your siblings, coworkers, classmates or cousins. If you are single and looking for love, then you will see your competitors out there. You need extra courage and creativity to show your sense of humor and cordial attitude to the potential companion. You will have better chance to meet the ideal soul mate by attending outdoor social events. Also, you can try your love on people born in year of Horse or Tiger.
If you are in love, you need to prioritize your love relationship first. You can look for more romantic time with your lover to avoid someone getting into your relationship. If you are married, then you need to reserve enough time for the family to avoid quarrel at home.

Social Circle: Your social activities will be increase a lot. You will be busy to meet with your siblings, old friends, coworkers or relatives. Therefore, you have good people relationship. Many of them are interested in money topics. If someone invites you to join a business or financial investment, then you need to diligently do the homework before making the decision.

Quarrel: If you have a lawsuit, a dispute or a quarrel with somebody, then you will face a strong equal. This case will last for a long time. It will be time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. The outcome of this dispute is unpredictable. Therefore, to reconcile with your rival is a good approach.
You can find people born in year of the Horse as your mediator. Horse and Pig have double attractive relationships. Horse can make a settlement with your opponent.

Health: When Pig meets Pig, the disappointment, self-condemnation and negative thinking might often come to your mind. You can have more outdoor activities under sunshine. Walking, hiking, jogging, cycling, sunbathing, gardening, bird-watching and fruit-picking are good outdoor events to bring back your positive thoughts.
Pig is connected to the water in the winter. When it's too cold, then you should pay attention on your kidneys, bladder and the urinary system. Strong Water is unfavorable to Fire. When Fire is too weak, then you watch out for your heart, blood, and the cardiovascular system.

General Fortune: Pig meets its gang with many similarities. They have the same target. But we don't know they are partners or competitors. Carefully dealing with people relationship and diligently managing your money investment is the top priority.

After the analytics of zodiac pig, let’s take a look at the rest of zodiacs.

Rats (Years of the Rat: 1924, 1936, 1948, 1960, 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008, 2020)
Rats will be lucky in their careers. There will be many chances for Rats to achieve their goals. Employees will have a chance to get a promotion. Rats should embrace their good opportunities.
Rat’s health prospects are average in 2019. Rats are suggested to pay more attention to keeping up an exercise routine and have a routine medical checkup.
Rats’ financial prospects are not bad in 2019. They will probably get a salary increase. In addition, Rats can look forward to being lucky with unexpected rewards.
Rat’s love prospects are not that good in 2019. Discord will happen in their love relationships and it will be hard to meet a suitable partner.

Ox (Years of the Ox: 1925, 1937, 1949, 1961, 1973, 1985, 1997, 2009, 2021)
Oxes will be under more pressure but will also earn more. They will need to persevere and be open-minded to understand the situation. They should not be too passive or they will miss out on opportunities.
Oxes don’t have very good health prospects for 2019. There could be hidden problems with their cervical vertebrae. Smoking and drinking are not recommended.
In 2019, Oxes will have good luck with money. Their salary or benefits will improve. Oxes will do well in their investments and be well rewarded.
2019 will be a lucky year for Oxes in their relationships. They will easily meet an attractive partner this year.

Tiger (Years of the Tiger: 1926, 1938, 1950, 1962, 1974, 1986, 1998, 2010, 2022)
Tigers have good career prospects in 2019, with great chances for a promotion. For employees, 2019 is a good year to build a career base. Tigers will get a lot of support from officials or management.
Tigers don’t have very good health prospects for 2019. There could be hidden problems with their digestion system. Tigers also need to be aware of their families’ health.
Tigers have good luck when it comes to finances in 2019 and also have some chances to get unexpected financial gains.
Tigers are not lucky in love in 2019. Female Tigers will fare better than male Tigers but will easily be misled when building a relationship. Male Tigers will be under pressure when communicating and the relationship will be unstable.

Rabbit (Years of the Rabbit: 1927, 1939, 1951, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1999, 2011, 2023)
Rabbits have good career prospects in 2019 with great chances for a promotion. They will be helped by seniors or leaders.
There are no serious health problems predicted in 2019 for Rabbits and they will have an easy year physically.
In 2019, Rabbits will have good luck with money with an improved salary or benefits. All investments will be profitable.
On the relationship front, it will be a rough year and there may be no good news at all for single Rabbits.

Dragon (Years of the Dragon: 1928, 1940, 1952, 1964, 1976, 1988, 2000, 2012, and 2024)
Dragons will be lucky in their careers. There will be many chances for Dragons to achieve their goals. Employees will have a chance to get a promotion. Dragons should embrace their opportunities.
Dragons don’t have a very good health forecast for 2019.
They are recommended to have their health checked regularly and exercise more.
Dragons are destined to have good luck in their finances in 2019. If you are a Dragon, you will enjoy a stable source of financial revenue.
Dragons have good prospects in love in 2019. They will be popular in 2019. It will be easy for them to settle down in a relationship with a loved one.

Snake (Years of the Snake: 1917, 1929, 1941, 1953, 1965, 1977, 1989, 2001, 2013, and 2025)
Snakes won't easily get a career promotion in 2019. The first half of the year will be a tough time for Snakes but their prospects should improve in the second half.
Although it's not a good year to get a promotion, it will be an easier year with a chance for Snakes to improve their skills and achieve more.
Snakes don't have very good health prospects for 2019. There could be hidden problems with their respiratory system. To obtain a healthier and stronger body, they are recommended to train in a fitness center.
It's not a good year for Snakes in 2019 regarding finances. They will have to do a lot of legwork with their investments to get ahead.
2019 is not a good year for male Snakes as they will encounter many competitors. For female Snakes, it's not a bad year and they will be popular. It will be easy for them to settle down in relationships with their loved ones.

Horse (Years of the Horse include 1930, 1942, 1954, 1966, 1978, 1990, 2002, 2014, and 2026)
Horses have good career prospects in 2019 with a great chance for promotion. Their work will also be relatively easy and flexible. They will achieve great progress in research publications, building their reputation, studies, and job portfolio.
Horses do not have good prospects regarding their health in 2019. They might suffer from mental strains for some time. They are advised to have health examinations regularly and to take the time to adjust their minds.
Horses have a good financial forecast for 2019. They will have good returns on their investments but still need to avoid high-risk investments and judge things on their own.
2019 is not a good year for male Horses. Female Horses, however, will be popular in 2019 and will find it easy to settle down in a relationship with a loved one.

Goat (Years of the Goat: 1931, 1943, 1955, 1967, 1979, 1991, 2003, 2015, 2027)
Goats' career prospects are unstable in 2019. Goats will endure a lot of stress in their careers and it’s not a good year to get a promotion.
Goats are not forecast to have very good health in 2019. They will be under pressure and there will be hidden problems with their stomach and gastrointestinal system. Goats are advised to do regular health examinations and to adjust their mind.
Goats’ financial prospects in 2019 are average. There is no big fortune to be made and they might even suffer financial losses.
Goats will have good prospects in love in 2019. They will have an active love life.

Monkey (Years of the Monkey: 1932, 1944, 1956, 1968, 1980, 1992, 2004, 2016, and 2028)
Monkeys will be lucky in their careers. There will be many chances for Monkeys to achieve their goals. As long as they are careful and work hard, everything will go well for them.
Monkeys’ health prospects are average in 2019. They are advised to maintain an exercise routine and have routine medical checkups. In 2019, Monkeys will have good luck with money. Their salaries or benefits will improve. Monkeys will do well in their investments and be well rewarded.
2019 will be a lucky year for Monkeys in their relationships. They will easily meet attractive partners this year.

Rooster (Years of the Rooster include 1933, 1945, 1957, 1969, 1981, 1993, 2005, 2017, and 2029)
Roosters will be lucky in their careers. There will be many chances for Roosters to achieve their goals. Employees will have a chance to get a promotion. Roosters should embrace their good opportunities.
Roosters will enjoy stable financial revenue but there is no big, unexpected fortune to be made. Roosters are destined to have good luck in their finances in 2019.
Roosters' love prospects are good in 2019. They will easily meet an attractive partner this year. Female Roosters will have more luck than male Roosters.
Roosters are not lucky with their health in 2019. People born in a year of the Rooster are typically active and enjoy sports, such as hiking and swimming. Therefore, Roosters should take more exercise to strengthen their bodies.

Dog (Years of the Dog include 1934, 1946, 1958, 1970, 1982, 1994, 2006, 2018, and 2030)
2018 is classed as an Earth Dog year.
Dogs' career prospects are average in 2019. Dogs are ambitious but it will not be easy for them to get a promotion. Therefore, they are advised to focus on their current work.There are no serious health problems predicted in 2019 for Dogs.
Dogs are advised to pay more attention to maintaining an exercise routine and to have routine medical checkups.
Dogs' financial prospects are not bad in 2019. They will probably get a salary increase. In addition, Dogs can look forward to being lucky with unexpected rewards. Dogs like to gain benefits by using strategies.
Dogs' love prospects are lucky in 2019. Dogs are likely to meet a nice person who will reciprocate their feelings. Sometimes, however, they might have conflicts with their partners.

The Greatest Football Team in Hangzhou 解锁新技能?美式橄榄球了解一下

It was a rainy day on April 10th, 2015 when Jake Silbert and Seydi Yougo Ba, two passionate football enthusiasts got together to discuss their plans for a new football team right here in Hangzhou. Two days after that fateful meeting, the Hangzhou Generals had their first ever practice. Fast forward three years and the Hangzhou Generals are one of the twenty teams in the American Football League of China (AFLC). The Generals just had their first ever official league game versus the Wuxi team and even got their first W in that game. 

Football preparation is crucial for the players and coaching staff. This group takes practice seriously. The drills are fast paced and highly intense. At Hangzhou Jiayang Football field (佳杨体育足球场) they practice on brand new AstroTurf every Wednesday night from 8 p.m. to 10 p.m and Sunday morning from 9 to 12. The fee to join the team is 300 RMB for three months which helps cover field costs and practice and equipment. Beginners first learn the basics, then after the two months of player evaluation the coaches will decid which position is suitable for their skills. It is approximately 3000 RMB for the full equipment set which includes a helmet, practice pants, team jersey, shoulder pads, football cleats, and gloves.

 

Off the field, two highly qualified training coaches conduct Saturday morning workout sessions from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. at Enjoy Fitness, located at the sports training center on 201 Kai Xuan road. The trainers can help to create the right workout program for you and your position.

The Generals philosophy is to be a tough family. Team Members are taught to grow as a group, not as an individual. Seydi once said in a huddle, “I love you all and I hope you love each other”. The players still say that in the huddles now. They comprehend that football is a rough sport, so everyone needs to be as tough as possible. If a player needs to leave the Generals, Seydi really hopes that they can remember the positives of being a General. The Generals are made of players from America, Cameroon, China, Congo, France, and the Ukraine.

 

When Seydi was asked what’s the three-year plan for the organization, he said confidently ‘to win a championship.’ I felt the seriousness in his tone, this coach means business. He understands that they need to keep raising the bar. They want to be the most competitive team in the league.

Seydi and YOUGO SPORTS are making an impact in youth football right here in Hangzhou. Together they operate American football programs. Four years ago, opportunities for young children to play American football were close to none.  Now, children from all ages are getting the chance to be more active and meet new friends from different parts of the world just by playing youth football. Seydi realizes the challenge here, but to him if it is easy, then it is not worth doing. He feels that kids need to be involved in sports, and they must understand how their bodies work.

 

Q & A with Seydi  
More Hangzhou (MHZ);  Seydi (S)

 

MHZ: What drives you to put so much energy into what you are doing? How do you remain on task? 

S: Always improve, a lot of hard work. I must stay focused. People only compliment you when they see results, but I didn’t hear anything when I was in the dirt. Now that the team is growing, people on the outside want to take it more seriously. They see us growing and constantly raising the bar. I need to be patient. I want to help more people and help the community, grow the city and get people together.

MHZ: Tell us a little about the interactions with the fans. Every time there are pictures it is noticeable that the Generals have a good number of supporters.

S: It makes me happy. It makes me proud. A Hangzhou TV program is going to start making a documentary about us and more people will see us and that bring more awareness to the Generals. This means more excited families, friends, and children. More people will be involved. When people bring their kids, it gives them options. It is good for everyone.

MHZ: Explain your journey, you must’ve gotten into sports somehow. What got you into sports and eventually into being one of the founders of the Hangzhou Generals?

S: I grew up in Senegal for many years. I loved sports, swimming, horse riding, and martial arts. I love contact. When I got older I got more into boxing such as Chinese boxing and Thai boxing. I then went to France for school where I got a degree in sports. My brother was also in France playing football. That was the first time I saw the sport. I wasn’t into basketball or soccer. So, I thought I could learn football to play with my brother. Unfortunately, because of bad timing, him and I would not be able to play together, so I didn’t sign up in France.  I eventually started to learn more about sports management. I was in Shanghai for two years. I was looking for a team sport and found the Shanghai Warriors, I eventually got a good job offer in Hangzhou and decided to move to Hangzhou. At the time American Football in Hangzhou was just emerging, and that is where I met Jake. After some time we discussed starting a team.  

MHZ: You being the friendly person that you are and one of the most competitive coaches around, how do you balance coaching and friendship? Because you guys often train together, but you often spend time together off the field.

S: The players understand that I am one of the leaders and coaches on the team. On the field they respect me as a coach. They understand the difference. They know our relationship on and off the field won’t conflict.

MHZ: I am going to mention a couple of players on the roster, please tell me what pops in your head first. 

Charles

S: Fast. One of the first players from the start. I think he is the only player who has been here forever and still doesn’t have his own gear. He is amazing though. What he does on the field is spectacular. He is a great guy for the team. He is always smiling and chanting. I am glad to have him on the team.

Danyil

S: He is focused. He does everything he can to reach his goals. Good athlete. Understands the game. We need more people like Him.

Li Han Tao

S: Puts in so much work. He was shy at first. When we first offered him to be a captain he was humble, so humble. He does a great job, he shares everything. In a game he is the first guy on the ball. Defence and offence. He has that natural desire to coach other people. Always wants to get better, he wants to help any way he can. He helps recruit and helps spread the awareness of our team. We need more people like that. He made the difference to get the ball rolling with our team. He brings so much energy. He now does the team huddle chants. Just a great leader.

Jake

S: First thing that comes to mind is coach. I called him coach first time I met him. He was my first football coach. I slowly got to know him better and better. He started off as my coach, then teammate, and finally my brother. Great guy. I want him to come back. I know he wants to come back. Jake is the reason we have the team. He has helped pioneer development of football in China. He helped Hangzhou and Wuxi. He has had a huge impact growing the sport and bringing people together.

Xiang Wei Yang

S: She is the only female captain in China. She is one of our trainers. She plays cornerback and she is a beast.

MHZ: Sports in Hangzhou is growing. How do you feel of the current level of sports in Hangzhou? 

S: Hangzhou sports market is growing, and that’s good because the city needs more sports teams, sporting goods shop, and sporting events. Hopefully Hangzhou keeps building sporting facilities and fields. It will create more jobs. It is an interesting time. Hangzhou is going more international. Hangzhou will probably soon be on Shanghai’s level. The city wants to attract more foreigners here, so by having more sports and qualified individuals it will be great for Hangzhou.

These Can Give You A Fit Body

If you're reading this right now, you're probably in the market for a heart-thumping, blood-pumping, balls-to-the-wall workout. And, friend, we've got you covered. We're all about helping you get sweaty in pursuit of your goals, whether that means getting stronger, hitting a new PR, or losing weight. But let's be real for a second here: The tricky thing about weight-loss workouts is that they're kinda, sorta... a myth. Don't get me wrong—if you're trying to lose weight, a solid exercise regimen should be part of your plan. It just can't be the only part.

Here's the thing: Working out isn't enough on its own to make weight loss happen. There's so much else that goes into weight loss and body fat loss; in fact, exercise isn't even technically necessary in many cases. If you want to lose weight—and it's totally cool if you do and totally cool if you don't—adopting healthy eating habits has got to be step numero uno. To get technical, you need to create a calorie deficit, which means using more calories in a day than you consume—and the consumption part plays a much bigger role in that than burning calories in the gym, or while carrying your groceries home, or any of the other myriad ways you put your muscles to work each day. Other lifestyle habits, like sleep and stress management, and health conditions (think thyroid issues, to name just one of many) also affect your weight. Point is, weight loss is a complicated and extremely personal journey that doesn't look or work the exact same way from one person to the next.
Anyway, we are going to introduce a few quite efficient workout, if you have nothing planned for your National holiday, then why not use this time to start a new habit?

Boot Camp

For a workout that's going to keep your metabolism elevated, turn to boot camp, as these classes combine two of the most effective styles of training: interval and resistance. You'll perform exercises, some more cardio-focused and others strength-focused, full-out for short bursts of time, coupled with short periods of rest. But if it's your first time going to a boot camp class, speak up. A good instructor will help you determine when you need to crank up the weight or intensity (tip: if you can cruise through 10 reps without any trouble, it's too easy), keep your form on par, and can always provide a modification for any move that might be too tough or irritates an injury.

 You can do it in these places:
Zhan Training Gym 战健身训练馆
Add: 001, East side of the Dragon Stadium (next to Kedi grocery store) 黄龙体育中心东看台001号
Tel: 8738 1024, 177 6713 4643

CrossFit Xihu 
Add: B1/F, Dragon Hotel, 2 Hangda Road 杭大路2号黄龙饭店B1层
Tel: 156 0653 6363

Boxing

At its essence, boxing is really another form of interval training. But it also makes you feel freaking badass. Here's the trick to remember: It's a common mistake for beginners to punch using only their arm strength, but the majority of your power is going to come from your core and you'll use muscles that are typically ignored in other workouts (hey there, obliques). 
It's best to log this type of workout in a class, it's crucial for beginners to learn proper form from an instructor who can help keep your intensity level high. But if you want to brush up on your skills at home, try this beginner-friendly video from Milan Costich, or P90X home MMA workout.

You can do it in these places:
CrossFit PUNCH 拳击综合训练馆 
Add: 4/F, Building 2, Joy Park, 153 Wuchang Avenue 五常大道153号西溪乐天城2号楼4楼
Tel: 8619 2681

MMA Boxing 竞界格斗 MMA综合格斗馆 
Add: 604 Jinsha Avenue, Xiasha 下沙金沙大道604号(张弛射箭馆对面)
Tel: 137 7738 7873

Crossfit

There's a reason CrossFit has become such a booming part of the workout industry—it works, so long as you don't overdo it. Workouts are varied—you may be doing anything from kettlebell swings to rope climbs and box jumps to front squats—and the routines are designed to be short and intense. The most important thing to find when looking for the box (CrossFit slang for "gym") that fits you best: a well-informed coach who can explain and modify the moves, and make sure that you don't push yourself to the point of injury. Here are a few things to keep in mind before every WOD.

You can do it in these places:
Crossfit Qiantang 
Add: 102, A2, 1138 Park, Fenghuangshanjiao Road 凤凰山脚路7号凤凰御元艺术基地1138园区A2-102
Tel: 150 5712 3112

CrossFit Unicorn麒麟综合训练馆 
Add: Inside Huancheng Sports Center, Huaide Street, Binjiang 怀德街怀诚体育运动中心
Tel: 8779 7269

CrossFit DPlus 
Add: 706 Fengtan Road 丰潭路706号
Tel: 8721 0221

Reebok 1030 CrossFit 
Add: A304, 3/F, Gran Canal Place, 58 Lishui Road 丽水路58号远洋乐堤港3楼A304
Tel: 5626 0377

Rowing Machine

The burn: 481-713 calories/hour (at 150 watts, which you can check on the machine) 
The bonus burn: To get maximum torching power, row in super-fast one-minute intervals (150 watts), and take 30- to 60-second active rest periods by alternating between squats, pushups, and planks.  (This high-intensity rowing workout will get your heart racing.)
Most of Crossfit boxes all have rowing machines.

You can do it in these places:
Oakwood Residence Hangzhou Fitness Center 奥克伍德国际酒店公寓健身中心 
Add: 28 Jiaogong Road 教工路28号
Tel: 8899 3131

Oteamfit/Oteamfit 私人运动空间/太极武场 
Add: Room 605, Building B, Huarun Mansion 华润大厦B座605室
Tel: 157 1578 8529

Swimming

If you can't stand the thought of running, or just want to work out without a ton of pounding on your joints, do a few laps in the pool. It's a low-impact exercise that will work all of your major muscle groups. As with most workouts, it helps to go in with a plan. Try this one: Tread water for as long as possible by standing upright in the deep end and using your arms and legs to stay afloat. Then rest for two minutes. Now swim 10 sets of 100 meters (that's back-and-forth lap in an Olympic-sized pool), resting for one minute in between sets. By the time you climb out of the pool, your muscles will be pleasantly worn out.

You can do it in these places:
Oakwood Residence Hangzhou Fitness Center 奥克伍德国际酒店公寓健身中心 
Add: 3/F, north building, 28 Jiaogong Road 教工路28号北楼3楼
Tel: 8899 3131

Physical Fitness & Beauty Center, West Town InTime Branch/舒适堡健身中心, 城西银泰店 
Add: 7F001A/7F001B, Building 3, InTime Mall, 380 Fengtan Road  丰潭路380号城西银泰城3幢7F001A/7F001B
Tel: 2899 8996, 2888 8878

If you have a tight budget to spend on the equipment or membership, don’t use that as an excuse, there are many other ways to do your workout. Here are some really simple and easy ones, everyone can do.

Running

All you need is a pair of sneakers before you head out the door. But if weight loss is the name of your game, the lackadaisical head-out-for-a-light-jog style of running isn't the way to go. Instead, find a hill you can sprint up, or crank the incline on that treadmill. "Running up hills forces you to work your glutes and legs—two of your body's biggest muscle groups—even more, which requires smaller muscle recruitment and more energy expenditure. As noted earlier, the more energy you're using, the brighter that calorie-burning fire burns. But proper form here is key. Lean into the hill, and drive your knees as high as you can, striking the ball of each foot down directly under your body, keep your hands open and arms bent at 90 degrees, and drive your arms straight forward up to face level, then backward to the top of your back pocket. And try not to let your arms cross over your body—that'll just waste the precious energy your muscles need. If you're training indoors, here are a few fat-burning treadmill routines to get you started. 
Try it: You can do these 4 fat-burning workouts on a treadmill. Or you can take them outside if you'd like—for incline work, just fine a good hill.

Tabata

If your biggest excuse for skipping a workout is being crunched for time, Tabata is your dream come true. It's designed to be four minutes of high-intensity interval training that consists of 20 seconds of all-out effort, followed by 10 seconds of rest, repeated eight times. And you can use this protocol with any number of different exercises. You'll spike your metabolism and heart rate in four minutes, but it is to be warned against making this time frame a habit if you're trying to lose weight. Your body will quickly adapt to that interval, and you'll need to increase the volume or intensity to continue getting a benefit from it. To do that, you have to extend your session to 20 minutes and following the same format. Simply pick four exercises—think jump rope, squats, mountain climbers, and squat jumps—then do each for 20 seconds as hard and fast as you can (while maintaining proper form, of course), then recovering for 10 seconds and 10 seconds only. Repeat for eight rounds on that one move (so, four minutes of work) before resting for one minute and moving on to the next exercise.

Jumping Rope

It's time to kick it back to the good ole' days of P.E. class, when you first learned how to swing a jump rope. This tool is cheap, portable (it'll fit in the tiny parts of your suitcase!), and can be used just about anywhere. After just a few minutes you will feel your heart rate racing! 
Here's a speedy routine to try:
1. Warm up with a light 3-minute skip with the rope
2. Do 100 traditional jumps (both feet leave the floor at the same time, and no extra hops in between)
3. Once you finish, immediately do 100 jump rope sprints (think regular jumping rope but at an even quicker pace)
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3, but follow this format: 50/50, 21/21, 15/15, 9/9
5. If you want more, work your way back up the ladder until you reach 100/100 again Oh, and whatever you do, don't do it barefoot. Few things compare to the pain of missing a skip and smacking the tip of your toe with a jump rope. Noted. You can do this entire sequence mock-style, though, if you don't have a rope handy.

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