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THE BIG BANG THEORY
By Jack Cameron

Why Aggravated Assaults Against China’s Front-line Hospital Staff Are Louder Than Bombs

Here we go round the prickly pear
All was quiet on our western front. And eastern. In fact every front was conspicuously quieter than it should have been that evening, given the season in question. The air did not smell of sulfur and carbon and chlorine, or vibrate gratuitously with the report of recreational ordnance. Fireballs of blue and yellow and green did not rain down on balconies, or ricochet off buildings, or bounce upon the roofs and bonnets of cars. The ground was not sprinkled with the red, singed paper tesserae that decorate the sidewalks on Chinese New Year. The Year of the Horse arrived with a sprightly cantor, not thundering gallop; and the collective din of the annual snap, crackle, and pop was less of a bang than a whimper.

As early as the first week of January, it was clear that festivities would be much gentler on the ears than they have been for the past decade. First, there was the conspicuous absence of the firework vendors who each January appeared out of nowhere and materialized at certain intersections and stretches of sidewalk. Then local news networks had begun asking citizens if they planned to celebrate the New Year with fireworks. Cherry-picked for broadcast or not, most citizens whose soundbites made the five-o’-clock news said “no,” citing both environmental concerns (air quality, noise pollution, litter and waste disposal) and worries about accidental injury or damage. Happily, “golden-hour,” reportage of the public spirit showed harmonious accord between the Old Hundred Names and the latest policies and advisories from relevant ministries and public security agencies. And sure enough, there were few bombs bursting in air, and less of the rockets’ red glare.

Smaug the Dragon
China’s cities became the focus of international interest (again) last autumn when images of urban skies and reports of frighteningly poor air-quality appeared in virtually all news media outlets. The promulgation and enforcement of firework bans fit nicely with the trending narrative, and the success of the policy initiative says a great deal about how the social inertia of cultural folkways can in fact be steered in new directions. The fact that the public will was not at extreme variance with the will of those in the North who craft Diktate minimized flashpoints¹.

Neighborhoods weren’t the only places that were quieter this holiday season. The emergency rooms of urban hospitals experienced a significant downtick in admissions, thanks mainly to fewer firework-related injuries.

Xinhua made the connection explicit in a news item of 15 February:

Sales of fireworks and the number of people injured due to fireworks setting off in Beijing have dropped significantly during this year’s Spring Festival holiday, which began on Feb. 10… A total of 165 people were injured due to fireworks setting off during the same period, down 22 percent from the previous year… No death or cases of eyeball extraction were reported...²

The China Real Time Report of The Wall Street Journal was among the English-language news-agencies to pick-up the item, though China Daily had reported earlier in February that firework-related injuries in the nation’s capital were, “down 33.89 percent from last year³.”

If slightly less-toxic air is a good outcome, fewer injuries are great ones. Among the people sure to be happiest about the data are the authors of the 2012 paper, “Prognostic factors and visual outcome for fireworks-related burns during spring festival in South China.” Conclusions include the recommendation that, “Laws should be passed to forbid the personal use of fireworks in China, and public education on the sale and use of fireworks should be increased⁴.” That very year, Xinhua reported:

Tongren Hospital has received 1,128 patients with fireworks-related injuries since Beijing removed its ban on fireworks during the festival in 2006. Nearly 30 percent of the patients are youngsters...During last year’s [2011] holiday week, the hospital treated 206 patients with firework-induced injuries, 178 of whom suffered eye injuries. The youngest was only two years old⁵.

But children were not the only beneficiaries of the new policies regarding the sale of fireworks and the enforcement of ordinances pursuant to their private use. Front-line hospital staff likely avoided injuries of their own, too.

Occupational Hazards
Aggravated assault against nurses, doctors, and hospital workers became talking-points outside China when major news outlets like The Atlantic gave column inches to the phenomenon.⁶ “Violence against healthcare staff is not new in China,” writes Yanzhong Huang. “It has been a topic of media concern since the early 1990s.”

National Public Radio, the broadcast brain-trust of American intellectuals, covered the same ground at the beginning of November 2013 (“In Violent Hospitals, China’s Doctors Can Become Patients”)⁷while Bloomberg was quick off the mark in responding to the March 2012 murder of a young internist at First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin University. In that commentary, Adam Minter undertook to explain why, “Violent Crimes in China’s Hospital Spread Happiness.”⁸ China Radio International (CRI) turned to the topic later that May 2012.

Scholarly concern for “hospital violence” in China (yiyuan baoli 医院暴力, or yi’nao 医闹in colloquial spoken Mandarin) is, as Yanzhong Huang points out, not new. ⁹ In 2006, authors sounded the alarm in the Hong Kong Medical Journal. ¹⁰

The historical development of both phenomena - criminal assault upon healthcare workers in China, and its position in the international news-cycle - are subjects worthy of further enquiry. What we have not seen so far, though, is interest inthe possible connection between the outcry from Chinese doctors in international English-language medical journals, and the decision to ban fireworks. And that just might be the real story.

Where there’s smoke, there’s fire…and probably mirrors, too
In 12 May 2012, The Lancet published, “Ending violence against doctors in China.” ¹¹ More than one year later, on 16 August 2013, The Wall Street Journal chimed-in, ¹² as did USA Today on October 24. ¹³ The May 2012 paper in The Lancet was cited in a 1 November 2013 commentary in the British Medical Journal (“Ending violence against doctors in China” ¹⁴ ), which was followed by a 23 November 2013 article again in The Lancet (“Appeals from doctors to end violence”). ¹⁵ The copy in both The Lancet and the BMJ was written by Mainland doctors working in Chinese metropolitan hospitals, and their sense of urgency is clear:

Within only 10 days in October, seven consecutive incidents of violence against medical personnel took place in Chinese hospitals, three doctors were killed and ten medical staff were injured. This recent wave of assaults on medical staff has led to widespread discussions on Chinese social media. Anger, fear, despair, and even hatred are common among doctors. Chinese doctors are under tremendous stress [ibid.].

Back to fireworks. The first mention of municipal bans on fireworks filtered into the media aquifer with Xinhua’s 12 December 2013 item, ¹⁶ which was run in the American edition of the China Daily (“Beijing to ban fireworks if new year turns foggy”) on 13 December 2013. ¹⁷ News that Wuhan would, in fact, prohibit the use of fireworks was reported by China Daily on 20 December 2013. ¹⁸

But the connection between fireworks and smog was not the only aspect of fireworks that was transparently of interest to the government.

On 22 November The Wall Street Journal reported that, “Fireworks Are Newest Target of China’s Austerity Drive.” ¹⁹ The article, based on a Central Discipline Inspection Commission report, ²⁰ suggested that, “the ban on gifts of fireworks, which can cost as much as 1,000 yuan ($164) a box, may be aimed at shutting down one more avenue for corruption rather than discouraging enjoyment of an ancient Chinese invention.”

“Shutting down one more avenue for corruption,” maybe. But these early government discussions about reducing civilian access to fireworks might have been part of a plan to make stealthy inroads on the phenomenon of hospital violence – under cover and against the backdrop of the domestic and international hue and cry about air pollution. ²¹

China’s Problem:
The West’s “Violence”

“The West,” if we may for a moment generalize and over-simplify, regularly criticizes China for (inter alia) the nation’s Yeti-sized carbon footprint. Rarely, though, are the long knives drawn for Chinese traditions and folkways. Fireworks add to the air pollution problem, but few China-hawks would go so far as to call upon the Chinese to discourage, “enjoyment of an ancient Chinese invention.” Allowing civilians to detonate fireworks en masse once or twice a year will make air quality acutely worse in the short-term, but banning the use of fireworks during the Chinese New Year will not do much to make air quality chronically better in the long-run.

What enforcement of the new policies did achieve, however, was less acute strain on accident and emergency units at hospitals during the holiday period. Because the fireworks bans reduced the number of burns and other fireworks-related injuries, there were fewer emergent-care outpatients clogging the arteries of a system that is under duress; and whenever emergent-care user-density is thinned-out, the likelihood of an aggravated assault resulting in the injury or death of front-line hospital staff drops too.

Beijing is thus in a position to announce this March - two years after the murder of the intern in Harbin - that indications for yiyuan baoli for the first two months of 2014 are positive. Simply by eliminating opportunities for predictable injuries, they reduced also opportunities for strife, conflict, and agitation in the ER. Given the outcry in the pages of The Lancet and the BMJ, such an encouraging statement from Xinhua is very likely, if not inevitable. After all, the phenomenon now has its own Wikipedia page (“Violence against doctors in China”). Not a good sign. ²²

Maybe there is in fact no connection whatsoever between this year’s firework restrictions and last winter’s concerns, from inside and outside China, about “hospital violence.” But despite the environmental impact of fireworks, and both the risks and foreseeable injuries and damage actually caused by fireworks, there’s still a lot to be said in favour of allowing the masses to celebrate Chinese New Year with them, and the government was very brave to try and clamp-down on such a beloved tradition. It is, after all, very eusocial and ethno-patriotic, enjoyed by rich and poor, urban and rural residents alike. It is a reaffirmation of the unity of Chinese culture – or at least, a public affirmation of belief in the ideal of such unity. Taking away from the people of China the freedom to enjoy an “ancient tradition” is risky business. That’s why the anti-pollution rationale is so weak: Why make the mob miserable, or risk head-on confrontations with civil disobedience, when everyone knows that a fireworks ban won’t make a dent in the air-quality problem? But arming doctors with pepper-spray is not a mark of a harmonious society, or of scientific development, or of expanding moderate-well-off-ness. ²³ And that is an issue that needs to be handled adroitly. And fast.

Fallout, Boys
And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Chinese rarely think about or talk about baoli (“violence”) or qinlve (侵略, aggression) as problems in their own right, as problems in and of themselves – not in the way Western Anglophones do. For Chinese language-users, to start doing so would require a formidable conceptual adjustment in respect to Chinese ideas of both, “violence,” and, “victimhood;” conceptualizations, which themselves are not easily facilitated by Mandarin. It is therefore a very bad sign that the community needed to and in fact did neologize (yi’nao) to vouchsafe and secure new references to a troubling if old phenomenon.

Over the past 25 years, American scholars (social and behavioral scientists mainly) have succeeded in redirecting discussion from the crimes of assault and aggravated assault, to a discussion of violence itself. The author who deserves much of the blame (though most would say: credit) for this is James Gilligan. In his 1981, Preventing Violence, Gilligan states:

I will use the terms disease, illness, and pathology to refer to any force or process within an organism or species that tends to bring death or disability to the organism, or extinction to the species. Violence in all the forms just mentioned is, by that definition, a manifestation, form, or symptom of pathology or illness, at least as much as cancer and heart disease are… [V]iolence is a manifestation of disease… ²⁴

Gilligan and others, in the course of a single generation, have foisted upon Anglophones an entirely new concept of what violence is – viz., that Violence is a phenomenon in its own right, one which, in order to be understood, must be abstracted from the concepts of crimes and/or torts – viz., trespasses against the person – and abstracted even from the concepts of right and wrong. Those who have followed Gilligan to the outer limits of his absurdity (and there are many) currently argue that Violence is indeed – and not just metaphorically or analogically - a kind of disease-entity, something that is best understood with epidemiological paradigms and models and should be addressed in earnest by public health experts. ²⁵

This reconceptualization of Violence is philosophically very problematic, and for China to buy into it is positively dangerous. China has heretofore lacked the victim-culture we find throughout the English-speaking world; and to reiterate, this is one of the reasons why there is in China so little conversation about either Violence Itself or Aggression Itself as “problems” endemic to human beings and our societies. In spoken-Mandarin, one rarely uses the adjectives baolide 暴力的(violent) or qinlvede 侵略的 (aggressive) to describe people or their actions. ²⁶ The guy who puffs-up his chest and gets in-your-face might be shenjingbing or you maobing (colloquially: crazy), or guofen, or erbaiwu (excessive, or out-of order); but neither the individual nor his actions are likely to be described in everyday spoken Chinese as baolide, mengliede (猛烈的), or qinlvede.

But when Chinese doctors write ²⁷ about the crime of aggravated assault (specifically as perpetrated against medical personnel) for international English-language publications, they or their translators have little choice but to describe the situation and to express their concerns in terms immediately cogent and friendly to the reigning Zeitgeist of contemporary English-language culture. Inevitably, they thus present themselves as a new class of victims, whose victimhood is to be understood according to the English-speaking world’s latest concepts of “violence.” But whereas the simple fact is that Chinese doctors as a class are increasingly becoming the targets of some individual Chinese malefactors, the English-language rhetoric of Violence tells the narrative differently: All Chinese doctors are potential victims of the Violence Itself which lurks in Chinese society, and which is now seeping its way into the hospitals. That’s a mischaracterization of the phenomenon, but it plays into the hands of Western observers who have a knack for connecting Violence Itself with (inter alia.) human rights issues.

And in any case, given the historical association between the concept of Violence Itself and both class-struggle and social unrest, ²⁸ China’s leaders have very good reason to want to nip in the bud both problems: assaults perpetrated against hospital staff, and the misbegotten meme of “violence” and all its muddle-headed conceptual accoutrement.

Look again at some of the English-language headlines:

Violence against healthcare staff is not new in China (The Atlantic)
In Violent Hospitals, China’s Doctors Can Become Patients (NPR)
Violent Crimes in China’s Hospital Spread Happiness (Bloomberg)
China trying to stop patients from killing doctors (USA Today)


The least contentious of these is the USA Today headline, which is accurate if lurid, while Bloomberg deserves credit for not shying away from the fact that these assaults are crimes.

This is important. The new English-language concept of Violence aims to be non-judgmental and non-prejudicial as to whether the author of the act was right or wrong in using force or the threat of force. Violence Itself – tout court – is wrong, though this is now meant to be implied by and is taken as intrinsic to the very concept of violence. This linguistic sleight of hand is achieved only by equating Violence Itself with wrongfulness, and shunting to one side the actual human perpetrator and judgment of him or his actions. And the West has become excellent at not judging – or, at not-judging.

This, of course, is a cul-de-sac of folly. If a patient assaults a doctor, we can describe it as an act of violence. If the patient is then tackled by security personnel and forcibly manacled, that too may be described as an act of violence. From either a moral or legal point of view, however, the two “acts of violence” are not the same; but the new paradigm shift downplays or eliminates the importance of that distinction. Once upon a time (fifty years ago, roughly), the problem was the wrongful, harm-causing behavior, some of which happens to be both criminal (and/or delictual) and “violent;” currently, the “problem” is violence as such – disembodied, rarefied, and almost spectral or paranormal.

Nonsense, of course. By spinning the sow’s ear of a violent act (like an assault) into the silk purse of a pathogen or disease entity, Violence Itself can be addressed without being critical of the people who actually do harmful things wrongfully, or without burdening such people with responsibility for their actions which, of course, misses entirely the point, and the real problem: people who intentionally or recklessly cause wrongful harm have done something wrong. There’s no question of whether or not they should be judged; we’ve judged them already. That’s why a “violent” assault with a deadly weapon is a crime, but a constable’s “violent” disarming of an armed malefactor is not. ²⁹ (Like, ni-hao?)

Hence the subtle but unfortunate implications of The Atlantic headline, which removes reference both to the human agents who do the assaulting and to the fact that these assaults against doctors are crimes. NPR, meanwhile, shifts the entire weight of violence to the clinic – violent hospitals. The fact of human malefaction disappears altogether, and we’re invited to contemplate doctors as being victimized by violent hospitals, another manifestation – another incarnation! – of the specter of Violence Itself.

This is a path both Chinese citizens and their leaders do not want to travel. Western scholarship’s current conception of Violence is intellectually bankrupt, the whole field of “violence studies” a dud, and rhetoric of “violence” part of the very problem scholarship is supposed to be solving.

Or perhaps the rhetoric of violence isn’t a dud. It’s more like an A-bomb, where the fallout from which is deadlier than the blast.

¹For those who make a living scrutinizing China for signs of “development” (read: Western liberal bandwagonism), the correct induction is: not every engine of social change need be combustible. The eardrum-friendly arrival of 2014 was, if you will, the gunpowder plot that worked without becoming incendiary.

²
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/02/15/fireworks-sales-eyeball-extractions-plummet-in-beijing/. See also: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/chinese-new-year-2014-china-urges-firework-ban-it-grapples-smog-crisis-1434407http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/29/us-china-pollution-idUSBREA0S0CE20140129http://thediplomat.com/2014/01/shrouded-in-smog-chinese-officials-consider-a-firework-ban/

³Supra.

⁴J Burn Care Res. 2012 May-Jun;33(3):e108-13. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182335998.

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-01/16/c_131363450.htm

http://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/12/chinas-doctors-are-under-attack/282002/

http://www.wbur.org/npr/242344329/in-violent-hospitals-chinas-doctors-can-become-patients?ft=3&f=242344329

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-29/violent-crimes-in-china-s-hospitals-spread-happiness.html

⁹Nor are they confined to China – Google-search “hospital violence” and you’ll find a great deal of literature from the US and UK addressing the same issues.

¹⁰
http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/45494

¹¹
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60729-6/fulltext

¹²
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/08/16/violence-against-doctors-on-the-rise-in-china/

¹³
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/10/24/china-hospital-attacks/3178633/

¹⁴
http://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e5730/rr/669822

¹⁵
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62401-0/fulltext

¹⁶
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-12/12/c_132963433.htm

¹⁷
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-12/13/content_17171332.htm


¹⁸
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-12/30/content_17206075.htm

¹⁹
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/11/22/fireworks-are-newest-target-of-chinas-austerity-drive/

²⁰
http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2013-11/21/content_2532026.htm

²¹The smog of 2013 had already been making headlines. The Huffing Post drew their reticules upon the issue on 21 October 2013, which is when Reuters covered the topic. The Washington Post was right behind them. And while some of the worst days (pollution wise) of 2013 were indeed in December – topical chatter on Weixin and Weibo peaked that month - the off-the-charts PM figures for December 2013 might not be chief reason for the new fireworks ordinances.

²²
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence_against_doctors_in_China. Put in the context of international media reporting on assaults against Chinese hospital staff, the creation date is telling: 2 November 2013. Note that we are to read “Violence against doctors” differently that we would read “Mothers against drunk driving”, or “Physicists against nuclear war”.

²³
http://www.ibtimes.com/hospital-china-arms-doctors-pepper-spray-protect-against-angry-patients-1542144

²⁴Gilligan J (1981) Preventing Violence, p.16, p.17 (emphasis added).

²⁵See for example see http://live.reuters.com/Event/Gun_Violence_A_Public_Health_Crisis, and http://harvardmagazine.com/2013/01/gun-violence-and-public-health. See also http://stevenpinker.com/pages/frequently-asked-questions-about-better-angels-our-nature-why-violence-has-declined.

²⁶Jiating baoli (家庭暴力) “domestic violence”, is another import, one which has been trending for a while now. But so far, native-speaking Chinese language-users do not fear or worry about baoli, “Violence”, in the generalized way many English-speakers do. An interesting point of comparison is, or may be, with the differences of semantic import between the English-language concept of allergy, and the Chinese concept of chaoguominganbing (超过敏感病, literally, “excessive-sensitivity disease/sickness”). The scope of guomin (“excessive sensitivity”) includes but is broader than the scope of “allergic”. This is why Chinese who are “excessively sensitive” to alcohol describe their condition (or: their own idiosyncratic relationship to alcohol) with the same word they would use to describe a nut or penicillin allergy. Wo dui X you mingan (我对 X 有敏感) – “ I in respect of X (alcohol, peanuts, etc.) am excessively-sensitive”. This is conceptually different from (and has different implications than) the English statement “I am allergic to X”. It is interesting also that, where an English speaker might distinguish between assertive and aggressive, and claim that Jones was not merely assertive but “was aggressive” or “acted aggressively”, the Chinese would be much more likely to say that Wang is guofen, or that Wang’s action was tai guofen – excessive or too excessive. Both mingan and guofen imply standards, limits, boundaries, thresholds, etc., to which something (a sensitivity, an action) is compared. In the new paradigm, neither ‘aggressive’ nor ‘violent’ allow for that. Both “aggression” and “violence” – and bear in mind that these are noun-forms of the useful adjectives aggressive and violent – are (following Gilligan et al.) diseases, or symptoms of diseases. As such, “aggression” and “violence” are deviations from health, not from standards of right and wrong. This tactical semantic wizardry requires a very particular and controversial (or at least: debatable) definition of health, and is an offense to the sensibility of everyday English, which allows that something may be intelligible and correctly described as both ‘violent’ (boxing, rugby, fencing) and not-wrongful, violent and not wrong, violent and good.

²⁷暴力 and 侵略 and their adjectival cognates are less uncommon as written words.

²⁸The first academic paper in 20th century American scholarship to even have the word ‘violence’ in the title is Adams TS (1906) “Violence in Labor Disputes”, Publications of the American Economic Association, 3rd Series, Vol. 7, No. 1 (February 1906), pp. 176-206. It also uses the word “violence” in the first paragraph more than any other scholarly paper in English had up to that time. This was then followed by a number of works which demonstrate clearly how a new concept of violence was taking place in the context of the rise of organized (unionized) labor – see John Haynes Holmes (1920) Is Violence the Way Out of Industrial Disputes?. Throughout the 20s, 30s, and 40s, English-language scholarship addressed a number of topics which today seem familiar – juvenile delinquency, the effects of comic books, television, and film upon children, etc. Few of these works frame their concerns in terms of “violence”, or even mention violence, a word which is in fact absent most of the inter-war and post-war literature dealing specifically with international aggression, strife, peace, war reparations, etc. “Violence Itself” does not in fact become an object of broad scholarly concern until the late 1960s, beginning in earnest with the papers in The Journal of Philosophy, Vol.66, No.19, these being from the Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical Association (2 October 1969). The contributions to this issue of the Journal of Philosophy were an attempt to respond philosophically to the militant disturbances and the student protests at Columbia University and elsewhere, and the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, once again demonstrating that the idea of Violence Itself was born in the crucible of civil unrest. In the prior century, the word “violence” was used most often in connection with the weather and natural phenomena, Biblical literature, the emancipation of slaves in the ante-bellum South, attacks upon African Americans in the post-bellum South, the conflict between labour and capital, and crime. The word rarely occurs in descriptions of either the War of 1812, the American Civil War (or the works of Stephen Crane, by the way), or the macabre works of or review of the macabre works of Poe. Crime reporting in The New York Times uses the word “violence” with increasing in the years after the Civil War – noting, obiter, that the first US daytime armed bank robbery took place in 1866, which was the same year the ASPCA was founded. Hannah Arendt’s On Violence appeared on shelves in 1970, but her work is best regarded as a contemporary continuation of a Continental tradition going back at least as far as Hegel (Philosophy of Right, 1820) and Marx, in which “violence” is understood in the context of political activity (and not: political activity addressed in the context of violence, as it is today). In Arendt, the word “violence” refers mainly to force or to power, but not specifically to the character of wrongful-harms or wrongful harm-causing – that is, to those things typically designated crimes. It is not to be wondered at that On Violence followed hard on the heels of proletariat revolutions around the world, the dying gasps of colonialism, and the worst of domestic riots associated with the Vietnam War protests and the Civil Rights Movement. So when, exactly, did “violence” start to become contemplated in the West as a phenomenon in its own right, as a “disease”, as a health issue? The Seville Statement on Violence was issued in 1986, but even here the enemy was not war, intraspecific atrocity, or even Violence Itself, but what its signatories thought was the strong determinism of EO Wilson and sociobiology, which seemed to them to doom Mankind to war in perpetuity. The date we are looking for is 2002. That is when the WHO – despite over half a century of grand and grandiose declarations – finally issued a report on “the problem of violence.” The project’s house-of-cards foundation was laid by those scholars took up residence on Gilligan’s island – vide World Report on Violence and Health – here: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/pr73/en/. We are left, at last, with an innocent and simple question, one which scholars are either unwilling or unable to answer: If “the problem of violence” had been in plain sight since the dawn of human existence, and has forever been one of humankind’s most intractable problems, why then did it take so long for anyone to write about it as a problem – that is, as a problem in and of itself? And with a world lately bathed in the blood of the Holocaust, why did it take the scholars and the researchers of the last half of the 20th century another two decades to discover Violence? Was the Armenian genocide, the massacre in Nanjing, the continued lynching of African Americans in the post-bellum South, the two world wars, Nazi atrocities, the Korean War, and Vietnam not quite violent enough? And if violence is in fact (and not just by stipulation or hypothesis) a disease, disease entity, or symptom of disease, why did the UN’s global hygiene secretariat wait 40 years to issue a report on the subject?

²⁹See R v Billinghurst [1978] Crim LR 553, Newport Crown Court: Judge John Rutter: June 12 and 13, 1978. The case concerned the reasonable limits of consent to the risk or prospect of experiencing intentional physical harm-causing in sport, insofar as such harm was or should have been reasonably foreseeable to a consenting athlete and participant. The ruling makes clear that while rugby is a contact sport, and that sometimes in rugby players do in fact throw or trade punches, consent to participation in a rugby match is not or should not be taken as consent to be either punched or assaulted in a manner which is or should be considered properly outside the scope of fair and reasonable play. The court so held, citing public policy as a principal or determining factor. The language throughout, though sometimes less than unequivocal, allows and in fact insists upon the intelligibility of making and sustaining a distinction between non-wrongful “violence”(rugby is a contact sport, it is rough, and may be described as “violent”) and wrongful-violence (the nature or kind of aggression which would lead or cause a player to punch another player is unacceptable, and to punch another player would be to manifest to an inappropriate degree aggression, and so or thereby commit a wrongfully-violent act. There’s a great deal of literature on the subject which tackles the rational of violenti non injuria fit in the context of sport and rough play (Yes. I said “tackle.”). The relevance of this body of literature to “the problem of Violence” seems not to be widely acknowledged or appreciated.

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Jennifer’s Enchanting Rose Garden

Imagine a garden where roses stretch out before you in a sea as far as the eye can see, carved out from a backdrop of tea fields and bamboo groves, the heavenly, sweet scent of roses enveloping you in a fragrant cloud. Imagine going back to simpler times when you can fall asleep looking up at a sky full of stars and wake up at daybreak to the melodious cacophony of lively roosters. An enchanting place where friendly dogs roam around freely, joined at times by a stoic horse, fluffy llama and a preening white peacock.

Fortunately, there’s no need to stay in the realm of imagination, the dream has been brought to life at Jennifer Ji’s Four Seasons Rose Garden in Daixi (埭溪), less than 45 minutes from Hangzhou.

How the Rose Garden Came to Be

The roses at Seasons Rose Garden come from all over the world, over 500 species from Bulgaria, France, England, Japan, etc. Jennifer would collect rose cuttings while on vacation in different lands then bring them home to carefully grow in her garden. Friends would also send her rose cuttings from different countries. Over the next 4 years, Jennifer’s rose garden slowly began to take shape, a labour of love.

Most of the roses seemed to be vintage varieties which are highly prized for their fragrance. There are fuchsia coloured rosa rugusa shrubs, a crimson coloured Louis XIV specimen, peachy quartered roses and cream coloured shallow cups. I didn’t know the names or histories of all the roses I encountered, but what’s in a name? I can assure you they all smelled as sweet.

Roses were not the first thing on Jennifer’s mind when she was given the opportunity to develop this 500-acre piece of land. She first thought about growing herbs such as lavender, since she had already developed a status as the “Essential Oil Queen of China” with her acquisition of French aromatherapy brand Lampe Berger in 2014. 

Hangzhou residents may also be familiar with J Spa, her elegant beauty spa on Yangongdi next to West Lake which has been bringing a supreme level of relaxation to clients for over 11 years.

Then it was found that herbs did not grow so well on this land but roses thrived. As Jennifer delved further into roses, she discovered an interesting fact - roses originally came from China and they were first cultivated in China 5,000 years ago. It is poetic then that Jennifer has brought roses from around the world back to their origins, to grow here in her garden. Her goal is to create the most comprehensive rose garden in China for future generations to enjoy the beauty of the rose in all their captivating varieties, colours and scents.

A Lady and Her Vision

The Rose Garden is still taking shape but foremost, it will be a happy, spiritual place where people can come to unplug, spend time in nature with friends and family and let go of stress and anxiety.

“ We work very hard in these modern times, so we must also enjoy and relax to the fullest, by indulging all 5 of our senses. My ultimate ideal treat is to slip into a warm bath scented with roses and essential oils, surrounded by flickering candles with meditative music playing… and also drinking a glass of red wine! Then all the worries of the day would dissolve away!"


“ I wanted that more people can experience that kind of enjoyment and that’s why I created J Spa, a beautiful, calm space where people can go to clear their mind."

“ But you know a spa treatment can be expensive and not everyone can afford that. My next plan is to create mini-spa treatments that everyone can afford, especially today’s students and young workers who are under a lot of stress. I want to let them experience that relaxation and enjoyment too. They greatly need to relieve their pressure and they are the future of China. I want to do something to support them.”

Luxurious Rose Facial for Just 99RMB

“ I always tell my beauty estheticians to treat every customer with the utmost care and love, like they are a family member. The customer has trusted us with their valuable time and money, they come to us to get relief from their daily stress and we owe it to them to do our best to relieve their pressures and worries. Regardless if they pay thousands of yuan or 99 yuan, we will give them the same level of treatment."

Jennifer’s words were proven true as I went to the mini-spa at Seasons Rose Garden to experience their 99RMB, 30-minute rose facial. The esthetician’s delicate, reverential touch and gentle soothing voice are more likely to be found in spa treatments 10 times this price.

Throughout the facial, the esthetician explained the steps that she was doing. First beginning with a ritual to deeply inhale essential oils, followed by cleansing, prepping my skin with pure rose water that protects against free radicals, applying a rose essential oil that quickly penetrates into the skin to repair and revitalize and then massaging my face to drain the lymph nodes of toxins. Next she applied a sheet mask infused with the potency of 52 roses.

While my face was absorbing the nutrients from the mask, she massaged my neck, shoulders and did that favourite maneuver of mine where she carefully nudged her fingers under my back till they were between my shoulder blades then she lifted up with her fingers and held for a moment, arching my back. Ahhhhh….tensions melting away! I even drifted off into a restful sleep, all the while inhaling the divine fragrance of roses.

After removing the mask, she gently patted the essence into my skin and applied a rose moisturizing cream. The 30 minutes felt more like an hour because of all the intricate steps performed and the level of relaxation reached. My face felt refreshed, hydrated and soft as velvet.

The rose products used in the facial were developed by Jennifer and are all-natural, gentle and non-irritating. I have been dealing with eczema on my face recently, which makes my skin sensitive and prone to allergic reactions, and the products did not cause me any problems. The rose water is even so pure and gentle that you can spray some in your eyes and it won’t hurt.

That rose water was actually developed in co-operation with Paris Hilton and is marketed under her brand as “Paris Hilton Limited Edition Unicorn Mist”. On Paris’ website, it says that ‘this is the exact rose water extract spray that Paris uses to keep her skin glowing and fresh all day long!’

In the coming year, Jennifer plans to open mini-spas around China offering these facials as well. I told her that when the Hangzhou mini-spa opens, I will be the first customer lined up and will get a facial every day!

Future Events and Directions

Besides coming to get a facial, there will be many cool events happening at the rose garden in the future and More Magazine will be sure to tell you the details as soon as we get them. Coming up around May 20 will be a celebration for the International Rose Culture Festival. It’ll be a great time to visit as the roses will still be in bloom. I can’t wait to get back there myself, walk around the roses and be immersed in that lovely, natural perfume.

To get to the Seasons Rose Garden, take the high-speed train from Hangzhou East station to Deqing Station, a 13 minute ride, then grab a taxi or arrange a Didi to drive 30 more minutes to the garden.

New RMB Banknotes Series Set to Release 新版人民币来了!

New 50-, 20-, 10- and one-yuan banknotes and coins of one yuan, five and one jiao (0.5 and 0.1 yuan respectively) will be released by the central bank with improved anti-counterfeiting features on August 30.

This will be the third edition of the fifth series of renminbi, which was introduced by the People's Bank of China (PBOC) in 1999 for 50-, 20-, 10- and one-yuan banknotes and one jiao (0.1 yuan) coins, whose second edition was issued in 2005. This is the first upgrade of the one-yuan banknotes and coins and five jiao (0.5 yuan) coins since 1999.

Another two parts of the fifth series are the 100-yuan banknote, which was first changed in 2005 and last changed in 2015, and the five-yuan banknote, which was not upgraded this time as it is used to study how to further promote anti-counterfeiting ability and extend the service life of renminbi due to its smaller denomination and circulation, according to the PBOC.

Notably, the 2019 edition of the renminbi’s fifth set seems to contain more color than previous bills. In the comments section under a Weibo post by Caijing, one netizen joked that the new paper money looks like it was enhanced with filters, while others caught up in the cashless world of payments claimed to have forgotten what the renminbi looks like.

In addition to the latest set of banknotes, the copper-colored five jiao coin is set to get a new silver makeover, while the size of the RMB1 coin will be reduced.

How is the anti-counterfeiting ability improved?

Color-changing ink will be applied to the pattern of the number in the center of the new bills to make it more difficult to counterfeit. For instance, the color of the numeral "50" will change between green and blue and a band of light can be seen to roll up and down when the angle is adjusted.

Other new features of these three kinds of notes include a security line on the right of the bill, which will change from hot pink to green with a bright band rolling up and down when the viewing angle is adjusted, and where "¥50", "¥20" as well as "¥10" can be respectively seen in the light.

As for the coin, a "¥" and "1" are hidden in the numeral "1" at the front of the new 1-yuan coin, which may be respectively seen from specific angles when spinning the coin.

What's the major change?

To be more portable, the diameter of the new one-yuan coin has been narrowed to 22.25 mm, 2.75 mm less than before with dots ringing the inner edge on the front.

There are six serrated segments, equally distributed around the edge of the new five-jiao coin, each of which contains eight isometric serrations with the coin's color becoming nickel instead of golden yellow inside, and the inner edge of the coin is changed into a polygon from circle, making it more identifiable to people with poor eyesight.

All four new bank notes will feature additional decorative patterns on the left-hand side and the tactile lines on the right have been removed.

Zhang Meng, deputy head of PBOC's Currency, Gold and Silver Bureau said that with major elements have remained unchanged from the previous version, and this new issuance strikes a balance between security, durability and elegance.

He also added that the central bank would collaborate with other ministries to ensure a smooth transition that help residents and vendors get used to the new currency.

The bank said it has already arranged for financial institutions to do the preparatory work, including upgrading the existing currency detectors to verify authenticity.

Great Places for Spring Getaways Around Hangzhou

The dreary months of rain may have you hankering for a vacation, and spring is the perfect time to take a quick weekend getaway. Whether you’re looking for the bustle of a city or the calm of the countryside, there are plenty of easy weekend trips that will feel like a much-needed escape.

With ideal temperatures, smaller crowds, and a true locals’ scene, spring shoulder season is arguably the most underrated travel time of the year. Here are five destinations to hit in April and May—before everyone else does.


Suichang, Zhejiang
Hongxingping Hot Spring Boutique Hotel

After 10 months re-renovation, this hotel reopened in the end of last year. Hidden in a small town called Suichang which is 4 hours driving from Hangzhou. To get there, the best way is to take a train to go to Longyou station (about 1 hour), then a 30 minutes bus ride to Suichang, once you are in Suichang, then you can get a Didi taxi to take you to the hotel.

As the name says, hot spring is the highlight of this hotel. The hot spring water associated with fluorite mine is introduced from the bottom of Hushan fluorite mine, which is two kilometers away from the hotel. The water temperature is about 41 degrees. It is one of the few natural hot springs of fluorite mine. You can chill out in the vinegar spa, rose spa, herb spa, or fish spa, if you want to be more private, a few rooms come with a spa. Make yourself a pot of tea, leave the stress and worries behind, pamper yourself in the nature.

There 22 rooms with different designs. The Family Friendly Room has a slide for the child to come downstairs and a glass ceiling to gaze at the starry sky; Hot Spring Room is facing at the Huangzhao mountain; the Husky fridge and Marshall blue tooth speaker are icing on the cake.

The hotel locates on the upstream of Wuxi River, everything comes from nature. The ingredients used in the restaurant are local chickens from Huangniling, vegetables and fruits from Gaoping, fish head from Shangping or rice from Zhulong. These ingredients either come from pollution-free areas at high altitudes or from areas with clear water quality at the source of Wuxi River.

The tea mountain just a few minutes away, you can also pick up the freshest fruits and vegetables in their own garden, or go sweat your self in the tennis court and gym, after enjoy a salt bath and hot sauna. 

Special Deal For MORE Readers
Price: 888RMB

Inclusions:
* 1-night stay of your choice of Courtyard Room, Sunshine Room, Family Room, Family Sunshine Room, Family Friendly Room (values 980RMB - 1,380RMB)
* Breakfast for 2 adults and 1 child
* Hot spring ticket for 2 adults and 1 child  (values 650RMB), unlimited entries during staying
* Free access to the gym with 1 hour personal trainer
* 2 glasses of cocktails at the bar, welcome fruit and free drinks at mini bar
* Ancient pagoda and tea plantation tour
* 30% off on the Hot Pot set menu (500RMB) for 2-3 people

Valid on both weekday and weekend till June 30th, 2019 (except for Apr.30th - May.3rd), if check in during the weekend, the 200RMB/room price difference need to be paid at the front desk. If change to other types of room, the price difference will be charged.

Add: Hongxingping Village, Hushan, Suichang, Lishui  浙江省丽水市遂昌县湖山乡红星坪村
Tel: 0578 8155 158
Website: www.schxp.com/cn/index.htm


Ningbo, Zhejiang
Camphor Tree Valley


Located in a small village called Li Jia Keng on Siming Mountain in Ningbo, Li Jia Keng means Family Li’s Pit. After 3 hours driving, you will arrive in this retreat away from the world.

In this spring, it’s time to get there to enjoy the private pool, the outdoor hot spring, and have outdoor picnic during the day and romantic stargazing at night, take a walk to the mountain which is covered by cherry blossoms and taste the rustic flavour from the countryside.

This is the season that cherry blossoms all over the mountain, there are two ways to enjoy the cherry blossom.

Tip 1: The Cherry Blossom Festival in Siming Mountain

The Cherry Blossom Festival in Siming Mountain (Zhangxi) of Ningbo is about to begin, it’s about 15 minutes drive from the hotel. This is a "cherry rain" for the tourists, you can walk among them or climb up to the cherry blossom sight-viewing platform to enjoy the amazing view. The Cherry Blossom planting area covers about 10,000 mu, there are more than 20 varieties of cherry blossoms in the field. In recent years, Zhangshui Town has extended the flowering period to more than 40 days by planting early cherry and mid-late cherry alternately. Generally, the flowering period can be extended from early and mid-March to the end of April.

Tip 2: Xiekenling Ancient Road

Xiekenling Ancient Road starts at Li Jia Keng and ends at Zhangxi village, it was the only way for Li Jia Keng people to reach to Zhangxi in ancient times.

It’s cherry blossom all the way from Xiekenling Ancient Road up to the mountain, total length is nearly 2.5 kilometers. The one-way journey takes about one hour, make sure you bring your camera, there will be a lot of inspiration for you all the way.

Now get the special offer for the Cherry Blossom Festival, only 588RMB for weekday, which includes 1 night stay + 2 breakfast + Chicken Soup Dinner (valid till Apr. 30th, 2019).

Add: Li Jia Keng Village, Zhangshui Town, Haishu District, Ningbo, Zhejiang  浙江省宁波市海曙区章水镇李家坑村
Tel: 136 1658 1771, 0574 8778 6682
Website: wx.miot.cn/i-95103


Anji, Zhejiang
Alila Anji 阿丽拉安吉


Alila Anji is a peaceful oasis situated on a hillside overlooking a lake, surrounded by the beauty of lush bamboo groves and tea plantations. With its clean air, mountainous landscape, dense bamboo forests and tea plantations, and ease of access from the major cities of Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou, Anji offers a wonderful escape for city dwellers and nature-lovers.

Enjoy the outdoors, cycling, harvesting seasonal produce, or fishing in Tian Fu Lake. Grab your camera and uncover Anji's hidden beauty spots. Or enjoy cooking and crafting - great fun even for the little ones.

Weekday Lake View Room 
Price: CNY1,999net per room per night

Available on weekday stay (Sunday to Thursday)
Inclusions:
* 1 Lake View Room stay with daily breakfast for 2 persons
* 1 time 60 min Spa treatment for 1 person
* 1 time hot pot for 2 persons
* Free upgrade to Hill View Villa (subject to availability)
* 1 time hotel activity (choose from singing box, mahjong, archery, hiking etc)
* 20% off on extra consumption of F&B Spa

Weekend Lake View Room 
Price: CNY3,999net for 2-night stay

Available for weekend (Thu & Fri, Fri & Sat, Sat & Sun)
Inclusions:
* 2-night Lake View Room stay with daily breakfast for 2 persons
* 2 times 60 min Spa treatment or 1 time120 min Spa treatment
* 1 time hot pot for 2 persons
* Free upgrade to Hill View Villa (subject to availability)
* 1 time hotel activity (choose from singing box, mahjong, archery, hiking etc)
* 20% off on extra consumption of F&B Spa

Both promotions are valid till 30 June 2019, exclude public holiday (5 - 7 April, 1 - 4 May and 7 - 9 June 2019)

You can book these two packages through: 
https://www.travelzoo.com/cn/local-deals/EastCN/Getaway/317161/?from=timeline&isappinstalled=0

Add: Fushi Reservoir, Meizi Wan, Hanggai Town, Anji, Zhejiang 浙江省安吉杭垓镇梅子湾旅游风景区赋石水库
Reservations: anji@alilahotels.com
Tel: 0572 5133 566
Website: www.alilahotels.com/anji


Deqiing, Zhejiang
Moganshan Solvang Village Boutique Hotel


Many of our readers may know that Mogan Mountain has increased in popularity over the past year as ‘the’ place to go for that weekend break, especially in those hot summer months to escape the heat. There are resorts popping up everywhere.

So why, you ask, or what makes Solvang so special? Nestled right in the midst of hiking trails, this family-feel resort has everything you could ask for to keep your blood pumping whether that be on a hike through bamboo forests, local farms for some fruit picking or to a serene waterfall or perhaps racing around on a mountain bike (available to hire at the resort for a daily fee). Not feeling the ‘sweat it out’ fresh air vibe? How about relaxing on a terrace with a good book, soaking yourself in a large bathtub or if you book on a special weekend, center yourself with some fresh mountain air outdoor yoga? Not convinced yet? With a fully stocked bar and restaurant, you can really relax, put your feet up and enjoy being looked after.

To get there is pretty easy, just take the fast train from Hangzhou East to Deqing station in just 15 minutes and the resort can arrange a car for you from there for a fee.

Room starts at 1,180RMB, to celebrate the arrival of the spring, they are offering an offer (200RMB down) from this week until April 30th.

Add: 112 Xiangdao, Reservior Side, Dazaowu Village, Deqing, Zhejiang 浙江德清县大造坞村112乡道水库旁
Reservations: booking@mogansolvangvillage.com
Tel: 136 6189 4469, 0572 8667 297
Website: www.mogansolvangvillage.com/


Deqing, Zhejiang
Gen Sinn Horseback Riding


Unleash your inner cowboy, the Indiana Jones or Lawrence of Arabia deep within, and hop in the saddle for the trip of a lifetime! Here in GenSinn Moganshan, you will make it come true.

Cross paths and forests, ride seemingly endless trails on the countryside roads, and stop on your way to enjoy the delicious country cuisine.

Gallop or trot alongside the streams and tea fields in the Moganshan. Ride far from those dusty roads filled with tourists, and go deep into the mountain for a pure bush experience.

Price: 498RMB/40 minutes

Add: Gaofeng Village, Moganshan, Deqing, Zhejiang (you can set your GPS to "浙江爵隐马术文化有限公司")
浙江省湖州市德清县莫干山镇高峰村 (导航浙江爵隐马术文化有限公司即可到达)
Hours: 8am - 5pm
Tel: 400 926 7833, 133 0571 5229, 150 8831 9562 

All About Tomb Sweeping Day

Tomb Sweeping Day (清明节, qīngmíng jié) is a Chinese holiday that has been celebrated in China for centuries. The day is meant to commemorate and pay respect to a person’s ancestors. Thus, on Tomb Sweeping Day, families visit and clean the gravesite of their ancestors to show their respect.

In addition to visiting cemeteries, people also go for walks in the countryside, plant willows, and fly kites. Those who cannot travel back to their ancestors’ gravesites may opt to pay their respects at martyrs parks to pay homage to revolutionary martyrs.

When Is Tomb Sweeping Day?

Tomb Sweeping Day is held 107 days after the start of winter and is celebrated on April 4 or April 5, depending on the lunar calendar.

Origins

Tomb Sweeping Day is based on the Hanshi Festival (寒食节, hánshií jié), which is also known as the Cold Food Festival and Smoke-Banning Festival. While the Hanshi Festival is no longer celebrated today, it has gradually been absorbed into Tomb Sweeping Day festivities.

The Hanshi Festival commemorated Jie Zitui (介子推), a loyal court official from the Spring and Autumn Period. Jie was a loyal minister to Chong Er. During a civil war, Prince Chong Er and Jie fled and were in exile for 19 years. According to legend, Jie was so loyal during the duo’s exile that he even made broth out of the flesh of his leg to feed the prince when they were short of food. When Chong Er later became king, he rewarded those who helped him when times were tough; however, he overlooked Jie.

Many advised Jie to remind Chong Er that he, too, should be repaid for his loyalty. Instead, Jie packed his bags and relocated to the mountainside. When Chong Er discovered his oversight, he was ashamed. He went to look for Jie in the mountains. The conditions were harsh and he was unable to find Jie. Someone suggested that Chong Er set fire to the forest to force Jie out. After the king set fire to the forest, Jie didn’t appear.

When the fire was extinguished, Jie was found dead with his mother on his back. He was under a willow tree and a letter written in blood was found in a hole in the tree. The letter read:

Giving meat and heart to my lord, hoping my lord will always be upright. An invisible ghost under a willow Is better than a loyal minister beside my lord. If my lord has a place in his heart for me, please make self-reflection when remembering me. I have a clear conscious in the nether world, being pure and bright in my offices year after year.

To commemorate Jie’s death, Chong Er created the Hanshi Festival and ordered that no fire could be set on this day. Meaning, only cold food could be eaten. One year later, Chong Er went back to the willow tree to hold a memorial ceremony and found the willow tree in bloom again. The willow was named ‘Pure Bright White’ and the Hanshi Festival became known as ‘Pure Brightness Festival.’ Pure Brightness is a fitting name for the festival because the weather is usually bright and clear in early April.

How Is Tomb Sweeping Day Celebrated?

Tomb Sweeping Day is celebrated with families reuniting and traveling to their ancestors’ gravesites to pay their respects. First, weeds are removed from the gravesite and the tombstone is cleaned and swept. Any necessary repairs to the gravesite are also made. New earth is added and willow branches are placed atop the gravesite.

Next, joss sticks are placed by the grave. The sticks are then lit and an offering of food and paper money is placed at the tomb. Joss paper money is burned while family members show their respect by bowing to their ancestors. Fresh flowers are placed at the tomb and some families also plant willow trees. In ancient times, five-colored paper was placed underneath a stone on the grave to signify that someone had visited the grave and that it had not been abandoned.

The Chinese joss paper “spirit money” known as Hell Bank Notes are commonly used in all manner of contemporary ancestor ceremonies. The most traditional notes bear the seal of the afterlife’s “Bank of Heaven and Earth,” while others are printed to resemble legal tender currency from various countries. Bills feature an image of the Jade Emperor, the Taoist monarch of heaven, and come in outrageous denominations from 10,000 to 1,000,000,000 dollars to help an ancestor purchase services, pay off the God of Death or escape punishment. Here are a few popular designs.

As cremation is gaining popularity, families continue the tradition by making offerings at ancestral altars or by placing wreaths and flowers at martyrs’ shrines. Due to hectic work schedules and the long distance some families must travel, some families opt to mark the festival earlier or later in April over a long weekend or assign a few family members to make the trip on behalf of the entire family.

Once the family has paid their respects at the gravesite, some families will have a picnic at the gravesite. Then, they take advantage of the usually good weather to take a walk in the countryside, known as 踏青 (tà qīng), hence another name for the festival — Taqing Festival.

Some people wear a willow twig on their heads to keep ghosts away. Another custom includes picking shepherd’s purse flower. Women also pick herbs and make dumplings with them and they also wear the shepherd’s purse flower in their hair.

Other traditional activities on Tomb Sweeping Day include playing tug-of-war and swinging on swings. It is also a good time for sowing and other agricultural activities, including planting willow trees.

Hangzhou

In Hangzhou, major activities for celebrating Tomb Sweeping Day Festival include sweeping tombs and going on spring outings. During the Festival each year millions people offer sacrifices to their ancestors and sweep their family tombs. Cemeteries are becoming more popular as a result of reform and China's opening to the world. This is particularly so in the areas outside Hangzhou, such as Suzhou and Jiaxing. Each year, more than a million people stream to these places, spawning traffic jams.

During the Festival it has become fashionable to blend brome grass juice with the flours of glutinous rice, and then to make them into pastes. The pastes are rolled into pieces of wrappers and stuffed with sweet bean paste and jujube paste. The stuffed pastes are put into a steamer, the bottom of which is covered with reed leaves. The freshly steamed pastes are green, bright and attractive with an appealing aroma. This kind of paste is the most unique local snack of the Festival. The local people also have a penchant for porridge cooked with peach blossom petals. Fish, whether for offering sacrifices or for a family banquets is usually saury. Local people consider the green pastes to be an indispensable sacrifice to their ancestors.     

Qingming Vocabulary

fénmù 坟墓= tomb / grave

mùdì 墓地 = cemetery (which sounds exactly like mùdì 目的 = “goal”)

sǎomù 扫墓 = to sweep tombs

bài zǔxiān 拜祖先 = to pay respects to ancestors

shāo xiāng 烧香 = to burn incense

shāo zhū 烧猪 = roast pig

gānzhè 甘蔗 = sugar cane

fàng biānpào 放鞭炮 = set off firecrackers 

qīng míng tuán 清明团 = green rice ball

All These Big Events You Need to Know - Coming Up in Hangzhou

International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology

Bioinformatics and Computational Biology has become an important part of many areas of biology. ICBCB conference series will be held annually to provide an interactive forum for presentation and discussion on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The conference welcomes participants from all over the world who are interested in developing professional ties to and/or exploring career opportunities in the region. The conference should serve as an ideal forum to establish relationships from within China and other regions of the world.

Time: 8am - 6pm, Mar. 21st - 23rd
Location: Zhejiang University Yuquan Campus


2019 4th International Conference on Renewable Energy and Smart Grid (ICRESG 2019)

International Conference on Renewable Energy and Smart Grid. ICRESG is co-organized by Auckland University of Technology, American University of Madaba (AUM) and Hong Kong Society of Mechanical Engineers(HKSME), technically sponsored by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Zhejiang University.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Mar. 28th - 31st
Location: Hampton by Hilton Hangzhou Binjiang


Asia Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering

The Asia Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering. ACPEE is co-organized by Auckland University of Technology, American University of Madaba (AUM) and Hong Kong Society of Mechanical Engineers(HKSME), technically sponsored by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Zhejiang University.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Mar. 28th - 31st
Location: Hampton by Hilton Hangzhou Binjiang


Asia and Oceanian Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Congress

Asia and Oceanian Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Congress is a platform to facilitate communication between clinicians and researchers in the region, disseminate updated knowledge about movement disorders, improve quality of life and independence of movement disorders patients and caregivers, promote research and facilitate research collaborations in movement disorders and expose clinicians, researchers and healthcare professionals in the region to movement disorders initiatives.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Apr. 12th - 14th
Location: InterContinental Hangzhou


Food & Beverage Innovation Forum

"Promoting the positive development of the food & beverage industry"
FBIF2019 is themed as "Gaining New Momentum from Open Innovation". The three-day FBIF consists of Plenary Session and two awards ceremonies on Day One, five sub-forums on Day Two and Day Three including Product Innovation, Marketing Innovation, InnoPack and Food & Money. At the same time, there will be interactive activities at FBIF exhibition area. Food and Beverage Innovation Forum (FBIF), founded in 2014 by Simba Events, is one of the most influential industry forums in Asia-Pacific. It is dedicated to promoting the industry development through sharing the most updated successful cases and communicate upcoming trends across the globe in the F&B industry.

Highlights
120+ global speakers and juries communicating the latest trends and successful business cases
7700m2 exhibition area with both exhibition and exclusively organized interactive activities

Time: 8am - 6pm, Apr. 23rd - 25th
Location: Hangzhou International Expo Centre


API China

"The oldest exhibition in the pharmaceutical field."
API China is the one-stop hight efficient industry platform for thousands of pharmaceutical and health care products manufacturers both at home and abroad. It will help pharmacy colleagues at home and broad fully understand the development trend of China pharmaceutical and healthcare products industry, meet industry friends and find new business opportunities.

Time: 9am - 6pm, May. 8th - 10th
Location: Hangzhou International Expo Centre


China International Pharmaceutical Industry Exhibition

China International Pharmaceutical Industry Exhibition will focus on areas like pharmaceutical machinery, packaging machinery, biological engineering, biopharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical water treatment equipment, fluid engineering, cleaning technology & equipment, process technology & control system, etc.

Time: 9am - 6pm, May. 8th - 10th
Location: Hangzhou International Expo Centre


China Hangzhou International Tea Industry Expo

China Hangzhou International Tea Industry Expo convenes famous tea, artisan and experts at home and abroad from top tea industry, big coffee, and tea lovers Gather together to create a grand tea feast.

Time: 9am - 6pm, May. 14th - 19th
Location: Hangzhou International Expo Centre


VeggieWorld Hangzhou

"VeggieWorld. The fair for the vegan lifestyle."
VeggieWorld Hangzhou is a platform to discover products that are not available in your supermarket and get to know vegan pleasure. Enriched with tips and tricks from creators, producers, chefs, and faces of the scene. Even vegetable-produced clothing and cosmetics that make no compromise in terms of shape, color, and style, you can find with us.

Time: 9am - 6pm, May. 14th - 19th
Location: White Horse Lake Jianguo Hotel


International Congress on Thermal Stresses

International Congress on Thermal Stresses aims to provide a forum for scientists and engineers from academia, research laboratories, and industry from all over the world who are involved in the field of thermal stresses to exchange ideas and to extend further cooperation among participants. The Congress should forge cooperative links between researches and engineers by bringing them to one place where they present their achievements and conduct discussions.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Jun. 1st - 5th
Location: Zhejiang Hotel Hangzhou


International Content Summit

International and Chinese companies to develop new programming across all genres. The most direct & easy way to find the right co-production or co-development partners.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Jun. 5th - 7th
Location: Grand Hyatt Hangzhou


Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference

The main objective of this conference is to promote the communication of new research on various aspects of light scattering including theoretical developments, numerical simulations, and laboratory measurements, and applications in scientific and engineering disciplines. The conference is expected to provide a congenial atmosphere for in-depth discussions as well as a learning platform for young scientists and students to experience the frontiers of these areas of research.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Jun. 9th - 14th
Location: Zhejiang University Yuquan Campus


International Conference on Physics of 2D Crystals

The International Conference on Physics of 2D Crystals will cover a variety of topics ranging from fundamental physics to applications of new two-dimensional crystals and crystal structures including Graphene, Boron nitride, Transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, WS2, ...), Hybrid Perovskite, Photonic crystal, BN nanophotonics, and much more.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Jun. 10th - 15th
Location: Zhejiang Hotel Hangzhou


EAI International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications and Services

The EAI International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications and Services focuses on the topics such as Innovation in Mobile Apps, Networking, and Computing, User Interfaces and Interaction Technologies for Mobiles, Location and Context Sensing/Awareness, Mobile Computing and Internet of Things, Smartphones and Wearable Platforms, and much more.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Jun. 14th - 15th
Location: Hangzhou


Asian Regional Association of Home Economics International Congress

The theme of this congress is The Aging and The Development of Home Economics Industry: For the Aspirations of the People to Live a Better Life, starting from the responsibility which home economics should assume while Asian countries and the community are developing rapidly. We hope that through home economics research, we are devoted to attaining the goal of family members' having a healthy, sustainable and long life We expect that in this very commemorative ARAHE International Congress, we will discuss this significant theme with many researchers of home economics from all Asian countries.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Aug. 20th - 23rd
Location: Zhijiang Hotel Hangzhou


11th Edition Conference
International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics

"New applications for Human-machine interfaces"
International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics aims to provide a forum for exchanges of research results, ideas for and experience of application among researchers and practitioners involved with all aspects of Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Aug. 24th - 25th
Location: Zhejiang Zijingang Hotel


IWA Odour & VOC/Air Emissions Conference

The IWA Odour & VOC/Air Emissions Conference will focus on the subject areas such as Policy and associated regulations for odour and air quality, Odour/VOC measurement, monitoring & sensor technologies, Odour/VOC perception, impact, formation and dispersion, GHG emissions, particulate matter and industrial emissions, Source characterisation and odour/VOC mapping, Odour/VOC abatement, mitigation and neutralization, Odour/VOC from wastewater, sewer systems and livestock, etc.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Oct. 14th - 17th
Location: Zhejiang University Yuquan Campus


China International Automobile Aftermarket Fair

China International Automobile Aftermarket Fair not only witnesses the rise and prosperity of China Automobile Aftermarket Industry but also sets up the most direct business negotiation platform for industrial enterprises. It will be the comprehensive industrial event that focus on providing product and technique solutions for automobile service industry, automobile dealers and all levels of selling agents

Time: 9am - 6pm, Nov. 23rd - 25th
Location: Hangzhou International Expo Centre


International Conference on Signal Processing and Machine Learning

International Conference on Signal Processing and Machine Learning are meant for researchers from academia, industries and research & development organizations all over the globe interested in the areas of machine learning methods/ algorithms, signal processing theory and methods, data mining, artificial intelligence, optimization and applications to human brain disorders like epilepsy etc. The conference will feature world-class keynote speakers in the main areas. Machine Learning usually plays an important role in the transition from data storage to decision systems based on large databases of signals such as the obtained from sensor networks, internet services, or communication systems.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Nov. 27th - 29th
Location: Hangzhou Dianzi University


Universal Tourism Exhibition

Universal Tourism Exhibition is a large outbound tourism trade platform and an itinerant exhibition. It is a B2B platform for Chinese outbound travel agencies and overseas inbound travel agencies, hotels, resorts, scenic spots, tourism platforms, cruises, tourism bureaus, other related tourism.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Dec. 5th
Location: Hangzhou


Money 20 20 China

Money20/20 is your opportunity to mix with an electrifying blend of global financial leaders, showcase new ideas, forge new partnerships and build brand awareness. This market-leading event showcases domestic and international companies from across the entire payments, FinTech and financial services industry, from financial giants to the rising stars of FinTech. Become a sponsor and make the most of this incredible opportunity.

Time: 9am - 6pm, Dec. 4th - 6th
Location: Hangzhou International Expo Centre

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